World History Ch. 22 - 27

  1. Leader of Portugal.  He promoted voyages of exploration in West Africa specifically to enter the gold trade, discover profitable trade routes and much more.
    Prince Henry the Navigator
  2. Navigational instrument for determining latitude
  3. In 1488 he rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean
    Bartolomeu Dias
  4. Proposed sailing to the markets of Asia by a western route
    Christopher Columbus
  5. An island in modern Indonesia and formally home to the capital of the Duct East Indies and the city of Batavia
  6. Led 3 expeditions to the Pacific and died in a scuffle with indigenous people of Hawaii.
    Captain James Cook
  7. Early forerunner of the modern corporation; individuals who invested in a trading venture could make huge profits while limiting their risk.
    joint-stock company
  8. A global conflict in that it took place in several distinct geographic theaters and involved Asian and indigenous American people and Europeans.
    Seven Years' War
  9. British joint-stock company that grew to be a state within a state in India, posses its own armed forces.
    East India Company
  10. The global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations and disease.
    Columbian Exchange
  11. German monk and Catholic priest who became a critical figure in what became the Protestant Reformation
    Martin Luther
  12. The inventor of the printing press
    Johannes Gutenberg
  13. 16th century European movement during which Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and others broke away from the Catholic church.
    Protestant Reformation
  14. Assembly of high Roman Catholic church officials which met over a period of years to institute reforms in order to increase morality and improve priests.
    Council of Trent
  15. People that went on the offensive side and sought to extend the boundaries of the reformed Catholic Church.
    Society of Jesus
  16. A series of religious wars that was started by the Holy Roman emperor and ultimately included Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Polish, Bohemian and Russian forces.  It was the most destructive conflict before the 20th century ****
    Thirty Years' War
  17. Institution organized in 1478 by Fernando and Isabel of Spain to detect heresy and the secret practice of Judaism and Islam.
    Spanish Inquisition
  18. The events that led to the replacement of the Catholic English King James II by his Protestant daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband William of Orange
    Glorious Revolution
  19. Political philosophy that stressed the divine right theory of kingship; the French King Louis XIV was a great example.
  20. French king who declared himself "The Sun King."  He was an absolute monarch who kept order in his country, established new industries and enlarged France.  France became the preeminent power in Europe.
    King Louis XIV
  21. Russian tsar of the Romanov family who sought to remake Russia into a model of the western European states.
    Peter the Great
  22. Sought to make Russia a great power; worked to improve governmental efficiency by dividing her vast empire into 58 administrative providences.
    Catherine the Great
  23. An economic system with origins in early modern Europe in which private parties make their goods and services available on a free market.
  24. Method of getting around guild control by delivering unfinished materials to rural households for completion.
    putting out system
  25. a labor system that required peasants to provide labor services for landowners and prevented them from marrying or moving away.
  26. Polish astronomer that argued that the sun, rather than the earth, stood at the center of the universe and that the planets, including the earth, revolved around the sun.
  27. The idea that the natural world could be explained by observation and mathematics
    scientific revolution
  28. English mathematician who's work united the heavens and earth into a vast cosmic system.  He discovered gravity, laws of motion.
    Isaac Newton
  29. system the gave Spanish settlers the right to compel the indigenous people of the Americas to work in the mines or fields
  30. Spanish conquistador that toppled the Inca empire in Peru
    Francisco Pizarro
  31. Latin American term for children of Spanish and native parentage
  32. Latin American officials from Spain or Portugal
  33. An area in the Mexican Andes (present day Bolivia) with rich silver mines
  34. Labor source for plantations; wealth planters would pay the laboring poor to sell a portion of their working lives, usually 7 years in exchange for passage.
    indentured labor
  35. The Virgin Mary appeared before the peasant Jaun Diego near Mexico City in 1531.  She gained a reputation for working miracles.  Her popularity helped ensure that Roman Catholic Christianity would dominate Mexico's culture and religion.
    Virgin of Guadalupe
  36. African queen of Angola who, for 40 years, led a spirited resistance against the Portuguese.  She dressed as a male warrior during battle and insisted on being called King
    Queen Nzinga
  37. Polish astronomer that argued that the sun, rather than the earth, stood at the center of the universe and that the planets, including the earth, revolved around the sun.
    Nicolaus Copernicus
  38. Kingdom in Southern Africa named Ndongo.  The Portuguese renamed it this name.
  39. Most important American crop brought to Sub-Saharan Africa because of its high yield and ability to grow in tropical soils
  40. In exchange for slaves, African peoples received European manufactured products from Europe.
    Atlantic Slave Trade
  41. Trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas that featured finished products from Europe, slaves from Africa and Americas products bound for Europe
    triangular trade
  42. The trans-Atlantic journey made by slaves from Africa to the western hemisphere on slave ships
    middle passage
  43. the dispersal of African peoples and the descendants
    African diaspora
  44. A large estate that produces crops
  45. A synthetic religion of Christianity and African beliefs practiced in Haiti
  46. Castrated males originally in charge of the harem who grew to play major roles in government; common in China and other societies.
  47. Chinese dynasty founded by Hong Mu and known for its cultural brilliance
    Ming Dynasty
  48. Chinese dynasty that reached its peak during the reigns of Kang Xia and Qianlong
    Qing dynasty
  49. Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought
  50. Last shogunate in Japanese history
    Tokugawa shogunate
  51. Japanese theater in which actors were free to improvise and embellish words.
  52. Powerful Turkish empire that lasted from the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until 1918 and reached its peak during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent
    Ottoman Empire
  53. Islamic dynasty that rules India from the 16th-18th centuries; construction of the Tahj Mahal is representative of the splendor
    Mughal Empire
  54. Later Persian empire that was founded by Shah Ismail and that became the center for Shiism
    Safavid Empire
  55. Christian boys in the Balkans forced into slavery by the Ottomans who became soldiers.  They were also required to convert to Islam.
  56. Ruler of Ottoman empire that vigorously promoted Ottoman expansion both in southwest Asia and Europe. Under his reign they also became a major naval power
    Suleyman the Magnificent
  57. The most famous of the Mughal monuments.  Built by Fatehpur Sikri as a mosque and tomb for his beloved wife.
    Taj Mahal
  58. Ottoman requirement that the Christians in the Balkans provide your boys to be slaves of the Sultan
  59. Most famous European writer.  His works reflected the period well because he focused on humanism as well as politics
    William Shakesphere
  60. A piece of paper that the faithful could purchase to reduce time in purgatory.
  61. King of England that split with the Catholic church because he could not get his marriage annulled.
    King Henry VII
  62. An invention that made books easy to produce and thus more affordable.
    Printing Press
  63. 18th century philosophical movement that began in France.  Its emphasis was on the preeminence of reason rather than faith or tradition
  64. A country actively seeks trade, but tries not to import more than exported
  65. Queen of England and daughter of King Henry VIII who oversaw the golden age in the arts, boasted commercial expansion, exploration and colonization of the New World
    Elizabeth I
  66. Russian leader who refused to pay tribute to the Mongols and declared Russia free from Mongol rule
    Ivan III
  67. gold or silver in bulk (bars) before being made into coins
  68. Small Spanish or Portuguese sailing ships
  69. Political or cultural dominance or authority over others
  70. is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God.
    divine right
  71. Slaves were considered actual property who could be bought, sold, traded or inherited
    chattel slavery
  72. Made up of all resettled Indians, supposed to protect Indians from outside influences. Demarcated Indian property
    Republica de Indios
  73. An enlightenment view that accepted the existence of a god but denied the supernatural aspects of Christianity
  74. a person of mixed white and black ancestry, especially a person with one white and one black parent.
  75. a person of mixed European and black descent, especially in the Caribbean.
Card Set
World History Ch. 22 - 27
World History Ch. 22 - 27