enzymes and glycolysis and lungs

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  1. intermediate and transition state
    intermediates can be isolated
  2. cofactor
    • inorganic (non carbon based)
    • metals
  3. coenzymes
    organic like vitamins
  4. apoenzyme
    without cofactor
  5. reading frame
    • DNA template is read from 3' to 5'
    • DNA, RNA synthesized from 5' to 3'
    • must have 3'OH group to elongate
  6. synthetase vs synthase
    synthetase requires ATP
  7. mutase
    move functional group from one carbon to another
  8. lyase vs. hydrolase
    • broke things apart
    • hydrolase uses water
  9. oxidoredcutase
    transfers electrons
  10. dehydrogenase
    remove electron to ETC
  11. catalyst molecular weight
    can be as low as 1 for proton or very large
  12. Km
    • concentration of substrate where you get half Vmax
    • low Km, high affinity for enzyme
  13. 1/0.02
    2% x 50= 100%
  14. competitive inhibition
    increase in Km, but Vmax doesn't change, soccer players don't notice difference if you add enough soccer pliers.
  15. noncompetitive inhibition
    • binds at allosteric site
    • derease in Vmax, enzyme doesn't work as well, breaking players legs
  16. mixed inhibition
    • binds to allosteric site, shape changes
    • Vmax decrease 
    • Km increase when it prefers enzyme
    • Km decrease when it prefers ES complex
  17. uncompetitive inhibition
    • binds to allosteric site at ES complex and prevents the release of substrate
    • decrease in Km and Vmax
    • parallel on graph
  18. decreased recoil of lungs
    • more difficulty exhaling completely, increase in residual volume
    • increase in total lung capacity
  19. alveolar walls destroyed
    increase in CO2 and decrease in O2
  20. positive end expiatory pressures
    at end of expiration ventilator will provide higher pressure than normal, which forces air into alveoli to precent alveolar collapse
  21. hyperventilation
    increase in respiratory rate, more CO2 blown off, shift to left in bicarbonate buffer equation, and blood becomes more alkaline
  22. increase in stiffness of lungs cause?
    decrease in volume of air the individual could inhale, decrease in total lung capacity and inspiratory reverse
  23. spirometry
    measure inspiratory and expiratory volume, cannot measure residual volume
  24. first step of glycolysis
    • glucose to glucose 6-phosphate
    • (hexokinase, uses ATP)
    • irreversible (large neg G) and exergonic
    • G6P cannot leave cell (trapped), neg feedback when G6P increase
  25. fructose
    • to fructorse 1,6-bisP
    • PFK1 (rate-limiting enzyme)
    • needs ATP, increase in ATP inhibit reaction
    • irreversible
    • PFK-2 in liver creates Fructose 2,6 bisP activates PFK-1 even when ATP is high
  26. G3P
    • to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
    • NAD+ to NADH
    • 1,3-bpg is high energy intermediate, the two phosphates get closer
  27. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
    • to 3-phosphoglycerate
    • PGK
    • 2ATP formed (substrate level phosphorylation-without ETC)
    • reversible kinase
  28. PEP changes to
    • to pyruvate
    • 2ATP 
    • pyruvate kinase
    • irreversible
    • fructose 1,6-bisP enhances reaction (feed forward reaction)
  29. products of glycolysis and where does it occur
    • cytoplasm
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 pyruvate
    • 2 ATP
  30. PKF affected by what molecules
    • AMP, ADP, ATP
    • not affected by inorganic P
    • because it uses ATP and changes it into ADP
  31. pyruvate (3C) changes to
    • acetyl CoA (2C), CO2
    • NAD+, ADP, CA2+ is positive feedback
    • NADH, ATP are negative feedback
    • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)
  32. oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA
    • citrate
    • (citrate synthase)
    • succinyl CoA (neg. feedback)
    • uses water, condensation, irreversible
  33. citrate to
    • isocitrate
    • aconitase (from tert. alcohol to secondary alc: more accessible)
  34. isocitrate to
    • alpha ketoglutarate
    • Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)
    • mito matrix
    • generate NADH
    • Co2 produced
    • irreversible
  35. alpha ketoglutarate
    • succinyl CoA (inhibits citrate synthase)
    • NADH and CO2
    • irreversible
  36. succinyl CoA to
    • succinate
    • GDP to GTP (substrate level phosphorylation)
  37. succinate to
    • fumarate
    • FAD covalently bound to SDH (succinate dehydrogenase bound to inner membrane)
    • produces FADH2
  38. fumarate
    • malate using enzyme fumerase
    • H2O added across double bound
  39. malate
    • oxaloacetate
    • using malate dehydrogenase
    • NADH
  40. ATP and NADH inhibit which enzymes in TCA cycle?
    • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)
    • citrate synthase (CS)
    • isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)
    • alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KDC)
  41. Ca2+ can activate which enzymes in TCA cycle?
    PDC, IDH, KDC
  42. what is the next in mito matrix from TCA?
    • 2 pyruvate, acetyl CoA used
    • 6NADH made
    • 2FADH2
    • 2GTP
  43. prejudice
    irrational positive or neg attitude toward a person, group without an actual experience. influenced by POWER, prestige and class
  44. ethnocentrism
    making judgments about other cultures based on values of our own culture
  45. thermoregulation of capillaries
    capillaries contract so less blood pass through, less heat dissipated, conserves thermal energy
  46. mucusiliary escalator
    internal airways lined with mucus traps matter and cilia propel mucus up respiratory tract to oral cavity
  47. spingomyelins
    sphingosine with hydrocarbon chain, fatty acid, and phosphate+choline
  48. glycolipids
    • sphinogosine with hydrocarbon, fatty acid chain and carbohydrate (when glucose then called glucocerebroside)
    • when several carbohydrate chains then called ganglioside
  49. glucopyranose
    when C1 (aldehydic carbon) and C5 (OH) of glucose come together (forms cyclical structure)
  50. alpha and beta glucose
    • alpha means C5 and C1 lie on opposite sides
    • beta same side
  51. what happens when alkalemia occurs
    when blood is too basic, then respiratory rate is slowed, more Co2 retained shifting equation to right and more H+ and H2CO3 produced.
  52. air flows in what order
    nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles (in lungs), alveoli (where gas exchange occurs)
  53. vibrissae
    nasal hairs
  54. mast cells
    antibodies on their surfaces, release inflammatory chemicals when antigen attaches to promote immune response
  55. surfactant
    • covers alveolus
    • lowers surface tension and prevents alveolus from collapsing
  56. diaphragm
    divides thoracic cavity (lung and heart) from abdominal cavity (under somatic control)
  57. inhalation
    • diaphragm contracts, chest wall and rib cage expands, intrapleural space volume increase
    • pressure decrease (neg pressure breathing)
  58. exhalation
    diaphragm and external intercostals relax then chest cavity decrease in volume
  59. inspiratory reserve volume
    can be forcibly inhaled after normal breathing
  60. tidal volume
    normal breathing
  61. expiratory reserve volume
    additional air that can be forcibly expelled
  62. how is regulation of breathing affected by neurons?
    neurons in medulla oblongata regulate breathing, contain chemoreceptors sensitive to carbon dioxide levels
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enzymes and glycolysis and lungs
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