1. cognitive dissonance
    • two simultaneous thoughts causing discomfort which individual seeks to minimize by changing or minimizing one of the opinions (alleviate intense tension after purchase by rationalizing their decision)
    • I was worried when I made the decision
  2. elements of cognitive dissonance
    important, voluntary, and irrevocable decisions (outcome and expectations do not align, person regrets, he made the decision)
  3. choice shift
    individuals in a group come to a more extreme decision than individuals would on their own
  4. symbolic interactionism
    • human beings actively contribute to their perception of their surroundings 
    • doesn't place emphasis on past over present
    • reality is defined in social context, objects imbued with meaning by their roles in social interaction
  5. social constructionism
    • perception of human is affected by social experiences 
    • gender roles are social constructs
  6. structural funcitonalism
    • institutions work together within a society to achieve dynamic equilibrium
    • society is most efficient when left alone
  7. conflict theory
    • capitalism and tension between the "haves" and "have nots" will lead to downfall of society. 
    • society left alone will effectively function for the rich
  8. pinna, tympanic membrane, ossicles
    direction of sound travel
  9. weber's law
    just noticeable difference for a stimulus is proportional to size of stimulus (jnd increase when frequency of sound increase)
  10. retrospective cohort study
    takes data already collected, reanalyze, and come to conclusion
  11. cross sectional
    data at one point in time
  12. case controlled study
    comparing patients with disease/condition with those who do not have condition (work back to see how risk factor affects outcome)
  13. prospective cohort
    follow groups with similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study and assess how factors affects outcome
  14. game theory
    regards decision making that affects potential outcome of multiple parties or behaviors regarding consumption of limited resources
  15. prefrontal cortex
    emotion, judgment, and decision making
  16. dyslexia
    mix up letters in words (language is controlled by parietal lobe)
  17. aphasia
    impaired speech, comprehension, reading or writing
  18. broca's area
    • in frontal lobe
    • ability to process language and to speak
  19. wernicke's area
    parietal lobe (comprehension and understanding of written and spoken language)
  20. Erikson's trust and mistrust stage
    are the adults stable or not stable in children's lines?
  21. erikson's initiate vs. guilt
    when one exerts too much power over others (feel guilt later)
  22. erikson's identity vs. role confusion
    est. sense of self (congruous self image?)
  23. erikson's industry vs. inferiority
    • can child handle new social and academic demands? 
    • ability to handle stress
  24. postcentral gyrus
    • parietal lobe (primary somatosensory cortex: sense of touch)
    • there is a map of sensory space called sensory homunculus in this area
  25. central sulcus
    • divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe,
    • divides the primary motor cortex (front), with the primary somatosensory cortex (back)
  26. nativist theory of language
    humans are biologically predisposed to acquire and understand language
  27. learning/behaviorist theory of language
    • role of environment (classical, operant conditioning, and imitation)
    • classical: association of dog with image; reflexive responses are brought under control by events that precede response
    • operant conditioning: parents reinforce language learning like grammar. Voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
  28. interactionist theory of language
    • language from interaction of biological, cognitive, and environmental influences
    • based on social interaction between developing child and more linguistically knowledgeable adult
  29. fundamental attrition error
    tendency to place undue emphasis on internal characteristics (personality) rather than external factors
  30. ethnocentrism
    belief in superiority of one's ethnic group
  31. central processing route
    • person persuaded by content of message 
    • receiver has motivation and ability to think about topic (motivation means it needs to be relevant, receiver cannot be distracted or not understand it)
  32. peripheral processing route
    use other signs to be persuaded like when a celebrity is speaking, etc
  33. schizophrenic thought insertion
    other people insert thoughts into his head against his will
  34. questions with cultural sensitivity
    • mental health 
    • not objective
    • ambiguous
  35. verbal communication
    spoken or written has linguistic conventions
  36. nonverbal communication
    intonation, tone, rate of speech
  37. carbonic acid
  38. carbonate
    CO3 ^-2
  39. trigonal pyramidal
    sp3 with one lone pair
  40. diamagnetic
    all electrons are spin paired
  41. lewis acid
    • accepts electron pair
    • greater charge/radius ratio, means more positive charge, which means better electron acceptor
  42. what method to use to separate compounds with different solubilities
  43. what method to use to separate compounds based on mass and density?
  44. what method to use to separate enantiomers
    use one enantiomer of another compound, react with mixture to form diastereomers, which can be differentiated with HPLC
  45. sound waves are what kind of waves
    • longitudinal
    • cannot travel in vaccum
  46. sphingolipds
    composed of sphingosine backbone, found in brain tissues in cell membranes
  47. reaction occurs stereospecifically
    means that the trans and cis form of molecule will react differently with incoming molecule
  48. amide
  49. amine
  50. ammonium
  51. ammonia
  52. what does sound intensity depend on?
    distance from source and amplitude of wave
  53. when is membrane potential established
    when there is a voltage difference between interior and exterior of cell
  54. P, F, A relationship
  55. positron emission
    positron (0 weight, 1 charge)
  56. electron capture
    • o weight
    • add one e
  57. how does phosphodiester bonds form
    5' of a new nucleotide attaches to the 3' OH of elongating DNA
  58. which carbons in glucose are chiral
    3-5 C
  59. transient
    lasting for a short time
  60. polemic
    type of speech or writing that uses earnest, direct approach to attack someone or something
  61. gap junctions
    permits the flow of small molecules and ions from cell to cell (esp. in heart)
  62. desmosomes
    cell to cell adhesion
  63. tight junctions
    prevent ions and molecules form passing between epithelial cells
  64. difference between absolute and relative refractory period
    • absolute is when one action potential has fired and another action potential cannot fire (depolarization), b/c all the Na channels are closed. Na must open for AP to fire
    • relative is after absolute refractory when another AP can be fired if it has a larger than threshold stimulus (AP cannot be caused by normal stimulus b/c not enough voltage gated sodium channels have recovered
  65. action potential process
    • -70 mV is resting potential 
    • -55 mV is threshold
    • after threshold reached, more Na channels open (30mV)
    • -90 hyper polarization prevents neurons from receiving another stimulus that goes in opposite direction
    • after hyper polarization, Na+/K+ pump brings membrane back to its resting state
  66. acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate forms
  67. initial stages of embryogenesis
    morula, blastula, gastrula
  68. ATP synthesis is coupled to what kind of reactions
    highly exothermic, large neg value 40kJ/mol
  69. what does the liver do
    • glycogen synthesis and storage
    • gluconeogenesis (generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates)
    • heme breakdown forms bilirubin (jaundice if not rid of)
    • cholesterole regulation and synthesis
    • production of bile (break down fat, help digest) to be stored and concentrated by gall bladder
  70. what organ execrates urea
    • kidney 
    • means of eliminating waste (mesoderm)
  71. ADH and aldosterone functions
    increase reabsorption of water, decrease urine
  72. cocci, bacilli, spirilli
    • cocci: circular shaped
    • bacilli: rod shaped
    • spirilli: spiral
  73. self-determination theory
    • motivation: human inherent tendency to be healthy
    • maybe the activity builds competence, relatedness or autonomy
  74. social facilitation
    tendency for people to perform differently in the presence of others
  75. foot in the door phenomenon
    • getting a person to agree to a large request by first getting them to agree to a modest request
    • change in behavior causing a change in attitude
  76. situational vs. dispositional attribution
    • situational: analyze a person's actions based on the situation that they are in (he is stealing candy b/c his family is poor)
    • dispositional: his behavior reflects his internal dispositions, he is an asshole that's why he cuts me off
  77. social loafing
    people put in less effort when they are part of a group
  78. social action
    • people avoids leaving candy unattended after study
    • act that takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals
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