Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2

  1. element
    the simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
  2. minerals
    inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms
  3. protons
    have a single positive charge
  4. neutrons
    have no charge
  5. electrons
    tiny particles with a single negative charge and very low mass
  6. isotopes
    differ from one another only in number of neutrons and atomic mass
  7. atomic weight
    accounts for the fact that an element is a mixture of isotopes
  8. radioisotopes
    many of them are unstable and decay to more stable isotopes by giving off radiation
  9. radioactivity
    the process of decay
  10. ions
    charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons
  11. anion
    the particle that gains electrons acquires a negative charge
  12. cation
    the particle that loses electrons acquires a positive charge
  13. molecules
    chemical particles that are composed of two of more atoms united by a chemical bond
  14. compounds
    molecules composed of two or more different elements
  15. chemical bond
    a molecule is held together, and molecules are attracted to one another
  16. ionic bond
    the attraction of a cation to an anion
  17. covalent bond
    sharing of electrons
  18. hydrogen bond
    weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly positive negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another
  19. mixture
    consists of substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined
  20. solvency
    the ability to dissolve other chemicals
  21. hydrophilic
    substances that dissolve in water
  22. hydrophobic
    substances that do not dissolve in water
  23. solution
    consists of particles of matter called the solute
  24. colloid
    mixtures of protien and water
  25. emulsion
    a suspension of one liquid in another
  26. acid
    any proton donor, a molecule that releases a proton in water
  27. base
    a proton acceptor
  28. pH
    the measure of acidity
  29. energy
    capacity to do work
  30. work
    to move something
  31. potential energy
    energy contained in an object because of its position or internal state but that is not doing work at the time
  32. kinetic energy
    energy of motion, energy that is doing work
  33. chemical energy
    potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules
  34. heat
    kinetic energy of molecular motion
  35. electromagnetic energy
    the kinetic energy of moving "packets" of radiation called photons
  36. electrical energy
    has both potential and kinetic energy when charged particles have accumulated at a point or on one side of a cell membrane
  37. chemical reaction
    a process in which a covalent or ionic bond is formed or broken
  38. chemical equations
    reactants on the left and products on the right
Card Set
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Anatomy & Physiology