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what is the leading cause of death in the world?
how many per year?
1 million per year around the world
38,000 per year in the US
what is parasuicide? how many in the US?
a suicide attempt but not completion
1 million in the US
why are suicide statistics hard to make?
its hard to distinguish what was on purpose vs an accident unless it was more obvious in warning or lifestyle
what is suicide
what are the 4 categorizes of people that commit suicide?
- death seekers-those who clearly intend to end their lives at the time they attempt suicide.
- the thoughts come in short bursts, then go, and sometimes cause confusion, then the commitment to make sure it happens is made.
- death initiators- clearly intend to end their lives, but act out belief that death process is already happening and that they are just shortening the process. expect it to come in days or weeks
- death ignorers- don't believe suicide is the end of their existence. they believe they are trading their life for something better. ex, going to heaven
- death darers- they have mixed feelings on death or life, even at the attempt moment. they take a russian-roulette suicide attempt. the act doesn't guarantee death.
what is subintentional death?
- when people indirectly or unconsciously play a role in their death. ex, drugs, alcohol, promiscuity, fighting, medication mismanagement, etc. also cutting, head banging, etc
- there is a correlation with risky behavior and suicide.
what are the 2 strategies to study suicide?
- 1) retrospective analysis- psychological autopsy that pieces together data from the person's past. done through past conversations, behaviors, suicide notes, etc.
- 2) study the people that survive- 12 unfatal attempt per every fatal.
why might religious affiliation be a huge component to there being less deaths
suicide is looked down upon
what are suicide attempt and success rates of men vs women?
- attempt: 3x more women than men
- success: 4x more men than women
- men use more violent methods. usually a gun 56% of time
- women use less violent methods, ex pills
most had no friends or family and werent married
what racial groups are more likely to commit suicide
white americans are more than 2x more likely. the men are second highest.
and american indian/american indian men which are 20% more than white.
american indian men are the highest!
why might american indian men be the highest to commit suicide ?
alcohol use, modeling, and availability of guns
what are common triggering factors for suicide?
- stressful events
- mood and thought changes
- alcohol and drug abuse
- mental disorders
under the category of stressful events and situations, describe immediate stress and the other 4 long term forms of stressors that can lead to suicide
: re occurrent or single short term events that puts a person under a lot of stress. ex. a divorce, loss of job, rejection, etc
- long term
- social isolation- a person has a little sense of belonging. limited social relationships, live alone, etc.
- serious illness- people in great pain or severe disability, thinking death is unavoidable anyways. ending the suffering
- abusive or repressive environment- abuse victims or those repressed with little or no hope of escape. no hope for situation improvement
- occupational stress- a job that creates tension or dissatisfaction. nurses, psychiatrists, doctors, lawyers, and unskilled laborers
explain how mood and thought changes can lead to suicide? what is it?
2 key emotions
a negative change from their previous attitude: increase in sadness, frustration, shame, etc. -->psychological pain
- dichontomous thinking
What is what is psycache and who developed it?
correlation with Psychological Pain assessment?
- -a feeling of intolerable psychological pain
those who scored higher were more likely to commit suicide
what is hopelessness
a pessimistic belief that their present circumstances, mood, etc will not change
what is dichotomous thinking?
what is the important word here?
viewing problems and solutions in rigid either/or terms
schneidman says they often use the word "only"
why does alcohol and drug abuse affect the tendency to commit suicide?
how any ppl drink right before they do?
they might lower the person's fear, release underlying aggression, or impair judgement
what are the statistics on the mental disorders of people who commit suicide?
out of everyone with mental disorders, how many commit suicide?
- 70% have depression
- 20% chronic alcoholism
- 10% schizophrenia
25% of people with each of these disorders try to kill themselves
how does modeling possibly cause suicide
suicide tends to be contagious, and family members, friends, celebs, colleagues, etc tends to be a trigger and people often replicate the act