What is the scientific name for an African Hedgehog? (aka 4-toed, African pygmy, white bellied hedgehog)
Which hedgehog are smaller and do not hibernate?
Atelerix albiventris, African hedgehog
What family and order do hedgehogs belong to?
- Family: Erinaceidae
- Order: Insectivora
Which hedgehog hibernates and is protected?
What is the scientific name for European hedgehogs?
What is the natural environment of hedgehogs?
Desert, Brush areas
Name some things about the biological nature of hedgehogs.
- Soilitary: 1 male harem
- Omnivores, with Insect predilection
Describe unique features of the hedgehog anatomy.
- Unique musculature:
- Frontodorsalis m.
- Caudodorsalis m.
- Panniculus carnosis orbicularis m.
- Spines;barbed, no toxin
- Closed rooted teeth
- Dental Formula:
- F=Frontodorsalis m.
- P=Panniculus carnosis orbicularis m.
- C=Caudodorsalis m
Describe special senses of hedgehogs.
- Smell via vomeronasal organ
- Self-Anoint, Anting
- odor stimuli
- frothy saliva
- lapped onto spines of back/flank
- toxins damage potential attacker
What is the gestation and litter size of hedgehogs?
- Gestation: 34-37 days
- Litter size: 1-7 (usually born at night;will cannibalize if disturbed)
How do you determine pregnancy in hedgehogs?
>50g weight gain 3 weeks after being with male, Rads, Ultrasound
What is the husbandry for hedgehogs?
- Temp: 75-85°F; Humidity: 30-40°/o
- Light: full spectrum, sun light
- Solid bottom cage with lid; absorbant, non-toxic substrate (avoid cloth and towels)
- Hide Box: PVC, cardboard
- Solid exercise wheel and/or swimming
What is the dietary requirements of hedgehogs?
- Omnivores: Insect predilection
- Protein: 30-50% DMB
- Dry, reduced calorie cat/dog food
- Supplement: 1 tbsp fruits and vegetables, gut loaded insects
What are the proper restraint methods for hedgehogs?
- Gloves: leather, towels
What are the reference intervals/physiologic data for physical exams of hedgehogs?
- P=>180-200 bpm
- R=>30 (usually panting in exam room)
- Wt= 250-700g (African)
- Life Expectancy:
- wild=1-4 years
- captive=5-8 yrs
- Do not hibernate
- Sneezing and hissing noises when threatened(differentiate from pathology)
What are the venipuncture sites for a <0.5 ml blood draw in hedgehogs?
- lateral saphenous vein
- cephalic vein
What are the venipuncture sites for a >5 ml blood draw in hedge hogs?
- jugular vein
- femoral vessels
- cranial vena cava
What is the maximum amount of blood that can be drawn from a hedgehog?
1% of BW (1ml/100g)
How is a venipuncture performed when using the cranial vena cava site in hedgehogs?
- 3cc syringe
- 25 gauge, 0.5 inch needle
- Landmarks: 1st rib and manubrium joint, line syringe parallel with long axis of body and enter skin at 45° angle.
- *shallow vessel
Describe therapeutic routes of hedgehogs.
- Oral: sweet things or meal worms
- IO catheter: femur
- IM injections
- Cat & Dog drugs are okay
- No hind gut fermentation
What are ectoparasites are a problem for hedgehogs?
- Myiasis-fly larvae: Lucila sp.
Which mites are of concern for hedgehogs?
- Caparinia tripilis: macroscopic and covers large surface of body. Puritis, quill loss, anorexia.
- Chorioptes sp.Sarcoptes sp.
- Demodex erinacei
How is Caparinia tripilis(mange) diagnosed and treated in hedgehogs?
- Dx: skin scrape, microscopic examination
- Tx: Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg SQ q 2-3 weeks X3 doses)
- Tx: Lyme sulfur spray
What drugs can be used for fleas, ticks and myiasis in hedgehogs?
Kitten safe products: Advantage, Frontline, Revolution
What GI diseases are seen in hedgehogs?
- Dental: tartar, gingivitis, SCC
- Obesity: lower basal metabolic rate of desert species-in wild, majority of time spent foraging for food.
- Hepatic LipidosisSalmonellosis
Describe renal disease in hedgehogs.
- 22% renal dz on necropsy survey
- glomerular and tubular problems
- nephrolithiasis(kidney stones)
What respiratory diseases are seen in hedgehogs?
- Pneumonia: nasal d/c, sneezing, dyspnea
What neoplasms are seen more in hedgehogs?
Which neurological disease is of concern in hedgehogs?
- Demyelinating paralysis=Wobbly Hedgehog Dz
- -Unknown etiology
- -18-24 mos old
- -progressive ataxia, wt. loss
- -ascending paralysis, death
What is the scientific name for chinchillas?
- Chinchilla lanigeraRodent in Family Chinchillidae
What is the natural environment of chinchillas?
- Andes Mountains, South America
- -cold/temperate climate
- -nearly extinct by hunting for fur
What is the biological behaviors of chinchillas?
- Social: 2-5/burrow; up to 100 in colonies
Describe unique features of the anatomy of chinchillas. (a lot!)
- 1. Open rooted teeth-hypsodont
- -yellow colored incisors(5.5-6.5cm/yr)
- -malocclusion tendencies
- 2. Cecum
- -smaller than rabbits
- -thin, fragile cortex
- -tibial functions
- 4. Bullae(auditory)
- -large and well developed
- -research subject
- 5. Fur-slip
- -easily epilated fur
- -escape from predators
- -months to regrow
What is the dental formula for chinchillas?
I-1/1, C-0/0, PM-1/1, M-3/3
Describe Chinchilla reproduction.
- Seasonally polyestrous
- -40d estrous cycle
- -postpartum estrus days after parturition
- -can breed year round in captivity
- Sexually mature at 4-12 mos
- -Fall born mature at 12 mos
- -Spring born mature at 4 mos
Describe the gestation, parturition and neonatology of Chinchillas.
- Gestation: 111days
- Parturition: early morning, onto floor (no nest)
- Litter size: 1-6 pups
- Birth wt: 30-50g
- Weaned: 6-8wks
What is unique about the female reproductive anatomy of chinchillas?
- Two uterine horns/one cervix
- Vaginal membrane open at estrus/parturition only
- Discharge vaginal plug after breeding
- Cone shaped clitoris ventral to vagina
- 2 pairs of mammary glands
What is unique about the male reproductive anatomy of chinchillas?
- Open inguinal rings
- Intra-abdominal testes; descend at breeding
- Large genital papillae similar to clitoris
What is the husbandry of chinchillas?
- Multilevel cage for climbing and jumping
- -15x15mm mesh
- -some solid portions
- -+/-solid exercise wheel
- Provide wood for gnawing
- Dust baths -silver sand and Fuller's earth at 9:1
- -remove and change daily after use
- Temp: 60-80°F Max
- -Heatstroke above 80
- Humidity 40-60% max
What is the diet of chinchillas?
- -grass hay ad-lib; avoid alfalfa
- -chinchilla/rabbit pellets 1-2tbsp/day
- -min. 2700 cal/kg
- -protein 16-20%
- -fat 2-5%
- -fiber 18% min
- -Fruits, grains, veggies as supplement only; limited amounts
- -H2O in bottle
What are the proper ways of restraint of chinchillas?
- Avoid fur-slip
- Scoop technique
- -one hand supports ventrum and the other the dorsum.
- -direct face towards your axilla
- Tail Base
- -hold at the base of tail while supporting the body
Physiologic data of chinchillas?
- T: 97-99°F(object to rectal temp)
- P: 150-350 bpm
- R:40-80 bpm
- Wt:400-700g; female>male
- Life span: 10 yr avg.
- Different color mutations in captivity
Venipuncture in chinchillas?
- 1% BW(1ml/100g)
- <0.5%ml blood
- -lateral saphenous
- -cephalic vein
- -ear vein
- >0.5%ml blood
- -Cranial Vena Cava
- -Jugular vein
Therapeutics/Antibiotics in chinchillas?
- Small needle (23-25ga)
- -SQ: dorsum and flank
- -IM: rear limbs;max of 0.3ml per site
- -IP:10 ml max
- -IV: lat. saph., cephalic, etc
- -Avoid:Penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, any with strong G+ coverage
- -Cause enteritis/enterotoxemia
Dental Dz in chinchillas?
- Incisors and Molars
- -wet fur on chin, chest and forelegs
- -anorexia, wt loss
- -tongue/gingival ulcers
- Otoscope to look at molars;+/-anesthesia
- Teeth trim
GI dz in chinchillas?
- Enteritis; bacterial, improper diets, antibiotics
- Constipation/Impaction; low fiber diets
- Rectal prolapse
- Parasites; Giardia is norm in low #s
Respiratory dz in chinchillas?
- -Pasteurella sp., Bordetella sp., Strep. sp
- -poor husbandry;overcrowding, heat, stress,etc
- -anorexia, depression, nasal discharge, dyspnea, abdominal breathing
- -unkempt hair coat
Integumentary dz in chinchillas?
- Fur ring
- -check q 3 months
- Fur loss
- -Dermatophytosis; Trichophyton metagrophytes, microsporum canis, microsporum gypseum
- Bite wounds/abcesses
Causes, signs, and Tx of heat stroke in chinchillas?
- Temp: >80°F
- Combo of Temp and humidity
- -T<80 with high humidity
- -both increased
- Signs: Recumbent, panting, hyperthermia, drooling, reddened ears and mucous memb., bloody diarrhea, cyanosis
- Tx: Cool H2O bath, shave, fluids and supportive therapy
What is the scientific name of sugar gliders?
Natural History of sugar gliders?
- Australia, New Guinea
- -Tree cavities
- Volplane (glide)
Unique Anatomy of sugar gliders?
- -up to 50m
- -fused 2nd and 3rd toes
- -grooming comb
- Scent glands
- -forehead, chest, paracloacal, paws, mouth, ears
- -superior night vision
- -gum digestion
- Prehensile tail
Unique reproductive anatomy of sugar gliders?
- -2 uteruses
- -2 vaginas
- -Pouch; No epipubic bones
- -Scrotum cranial to cloaca
- -bifurcated penis
Reproduction in sugar gliders?
- -seasonally polyestrous
- -year-round spermatogenesis
- Sexual maturity
- -female 8-12 mo
- -male 12-15 mo
- -Adult wt (1 yr old)
Gestation, Parturition, litter size in sugar gliders?
- Gestation: 15-17 days (step 1)
- Pouch development: 60-70 days (step 2); "Post emergence" estrus at 12d
- 1-2 young/litter; up to 2 litters/year
- Weaning: 110-112 days
Husbandry of sugar gliders?
- 50x50x75 cm; 2 gliders max
- Wire openings;<2cm²; no galvanized wire-zinc toxicosis
- Hide box; wooden box w/ 5cm opening;hollow log; cloth bags
- Solid exercise wheel
- Avoid toxic substrates;Newspaper toxic?
- House in groups; 2 min
- Temp: 75-85°F
Diet of sugar gliders?
- -autumn=plant exudate
- -fruit, vegetables, nectars
- -commercial diets;*Insectivores, *Sugar glider pellets, bird pellets, monkey biscuits
- 15-25% body wt daily
- 1% Ca, 0.5% P, 1500 IU/kg feed Vit D3 DMB
- H2O in sipper bottles
- Place food and water high in cage
- +/- supplements
Restraint of sugar gliders?
- Physical-hold head b/w thumb and middle finger while placing index finger on top of head
- Chemical-Isoflurane; Injectables *DO NOT USE TELAZOL
Physiologic data and life expectancy of sugar gliders?
- T: 96.5-97.9°F (characteristic for marsupials)
- P:200-300 bpm
- R: 16-40 bpm
- Wt: F-95-135g; M-115-160g
- Life expectancy: Male-4 yr avg; F-5 yr avg; Captivity-15 years
Venipuncture of sugar gliders?
- 1% BW
- Tuberculin syringe
- 26-29 ga needle
- Small sample-medial tibial artery;medial from stifle to tarsus, lateral tail veins
- Large sample-Cranial vena cava, jugular v
Therapeutics of sugar gliders?
- Drug admin-dosage range for cats, ferrets, hedgehog
- Caution w/ antimicrobials
- I/O catheters; proximal tibia
Nutritional diseases of sugar gliders?
- Nutritional Fibrous Osteodystrophy
- -sudden onset hind limb paresis/paralysis
- -pathologic fractures
- -inc. Phos., Dec. Ca and Vit D3
- -Tx-cage rest, correct diet, Ca & vit. D3
- -Fat deposits w/in eyes
- -Hypovitaminosis A
Stress related diseases of sugar gliders?
- self mutilation/alopecia-tail, limbs, scrotum, penis
- Aberrant behavior-polyphagia,polydipsia,copraphagy,pacing,cannibalism of young
- House in groups to avoid boredom and frustration.
Neoplasia of sugar gliders?
- Cutaneous lymphosarcoma
- Basal Cell Tumor-mammary gland
- Bronchogenic carcinoma
Other disease of sugar gliders?
- Ophthalmic trauma
- -d/t eye profusion
- Dental dz
- -tartar and peridontal dz
- -soft diets high in sugars
- -low incidence
- -rounds, hooks, etc..