Urinary System Congenital Anomalies

  1. Agenesis of Kidney / Renal Agenesis
    Absence of a kidney, kidney fails to develop
  2. Microkidney
    Small kidney
  3. Horshoe Kidney
    Two kidneys are joined at lower poles across midline of body.
  4. Polycystic Kidney
    Multiple, large cysts in the kidneys
  5. Double Kidney
    • Double renal pelvis, double ureter.
    • Superior major calyces may have separate pelvis and partial or completely separate ureter.
    • Most common congenital anomaly of urinary system.
  6. Ectopic Kidney
    Kidney is out of place, usually in the pelvis.
  7. Exstrophy
    Bladder may lie outside of the abdomen, with absence of anterior wall.
  8. Hypospadias
    Urethra opens on inferior surface of penis.
  9. Epispadias
    Urethra opens upon upper surface of penis.
  10. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia / BPH
    Enlarged prostate

    • Benign
    • Affects males over 50
    • Can cause urethral compression and obstruction
    • Can cause painful, frequent urination

    Floor of bladder may appear elevated or indented on IVU.
  11. Duplication of ureter and renal pelvis
    • Congenital anomaly
    • Two ureters and / or two renal pelvi originating from a single kidney.
    • Most common congenital anomaly of urinary system
    • Normally does not cause a health concern for patient
  12. Ectopic Kidney
    • Congenital Anomaly
    • Normal kidney which fails to ascend into the abdomen and remains in the pelvis.
    • Shorter than normal ureter
    • Not normally a health concern, but may cause difficulties with pregnancy in women
  13. Horseshoe Kidney
    • Congenital anomaly
    • Fusion of the kidneys during fetal development
    • Normally involves fusion of lower poles
    • Kidneys do not ascend to abdomen
    • Usually does not affect function of kidneys
  14. Malrotation of Kidneys
    • Congenital anomaly
    • Abnormal rotation of the kidney
    • Renal pelvis is turned anteriorly or posteriorly rather than medially
    • Normally not a health problem for the patient
  15. Polycystic Kidney Disease
    • Cysts scattered throughout one or both kidneys.
    • Most common cause of enlarged kidneys.
    • Can be genetic or congenital.
    • Infantile, childhood, or adult type < adult type is hereditary - disease is present at birth but symptoms not seen until adulthood >
  16. Renal Hypertension
    • Increased blood pressure to the kidney through renal artery due to atherosclerosis.
    • Caused by excess renin in blood which causes excessive vasoconstriction.
  17. Severe Renal Hypertension
    Can result in localized necrosis of renal parenchyma.
  18. Vesicorectal ( vesicocolonic ) Fistula
    Fistula between urinary bladder and rectum or aspects of colon.
Card Set
Urinary System Congenital Anomalies
Urinary System Congenital Anomalies