Soc 1101 Readings Prelim 1

  1. "What is a Social Fact" by Tuner and Beeghley (1981)
    Definition of sociology, the sociological perspective, social facts, social theory, social structure, social cohesion, and social context.
  2. "Getting In," Gladwell (2005)
    • - Does social theorizing to explain social puzzles like why people care about which school they go to
    •  - talks about social logic of admissions
    •  - Treatment vs selection effect institutions
  3. Selection from Suicide: A Study in Sociology, Durkheim (1951)
    • brought a scientific basis to sociology
    • good example of ideal research method
    • one of first statistical group study
    • argumentation by elimination
    • group-level explanation for an individual action
    • generalized theory to other institutions
    • developed idea of excessive individualism, or egoism
  4. Klinenberg, Chapter 2 Heat Wave
    • Does a lot of creative things, focused on a specific event
    • "Social autopsy" of the 1995 Chicago heat wave that killed 739 people
    • Sought explanations beyond weather, and beyond the individual
    • "Biological reflections of social fault lines" (Farmer quoted in Klinenberg, p. 11)
  5. Lareau, Methodology Appendix, Unequal Childhoods
    • Focuses on a very general topic
    • family life and childrearing practices across social strata
    • Consequences of these differences
  6. "Some Principles of Stratification," Davis and Moore (1945)
    • Considered functionalist - searching for a function of inequality
    • doesn't make an argument of whether it is something we want
    • Want to find out why we have it and assume that b/c we've always had it, it does something for society
    • Summary: Scarcity of desirable jobs leads to trimming so talented people get those jobs. Some jobs are more important so competition necessary for best people with most training
    • Conclusion: inequality is based on ability, it's an unconscious but necessary process
    • Doesn't take into account non-monetary rewards
  7. "Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis," Tumin (1953)
    • Inequality is not necessary and not inevitable
    • impossible to figure out who's the most talented and skilled b/c we live in an unequal society
    • Some people have advantages so some people don't get discovered
  8. "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black and White Families," Lareau (2002)
    • Concerted Cultivation (middle class) vs Accomplishment of Natural Growth (working class)
    • CC - parents develop child's skills through organized activities. Parents use reasoning for punishment, everything is a negotiation. Downside: creates hectic environemtn
    • ANG - more indepent children, parents role = keep kids safe and give food, clothing, shelter. Children taught to listen to adults and not challenge authority. Hang w/ kids of different ages more b/c hang w/ family/cousins
    • Found no social mobility b/c working class kids didn't go to college, most middle class kids did
  9. Lemert edited (2013), “The Manifesto of Class Struggle” by Karl Marx
    • Origins of sociological study of stratification
    • Conflict between social classes propels social change throughout history
    • communism as alternative to capitalism
    • every mode of production is grounded in a social relationship characterized by opposing interests, the proletariat (workers) vs. bourgeoisie (capitalists)
    • workers sell labor, a commodity, and employers exploit the workers by extracting surplus value
  10. "How Class
    Works: Objective and Subjective Aspects of Class Since the 1970s,” Hout
    • class: "how people earn their money, how much money they have, and what they do with their money" (Hout, p. 26)
    • where people fit in American society, most think they're working or middle class
    • class not always clear, borders vague, status inconsistencies
    • large class differences in attitudes and behaviors like health, happiness, trust, leisure activities, political participation
  11. “Class Divisions Grow Worse, from Cradle On,” New York Times by Claire Cain Miller
    more on class divisions of middle class and working class
  12. Class Matters, (2005)— “Up from the Holler: Living in Two Worlds, at Home in Neither”(Lewin) and “From the Bronx to Cornell” (Price)
  13. “Racial Fluidity and Inequality in the United States,” Saperstein and Penner (2012)
    • Won award for best article in best journal b/c rigorous, using nationally representative survey data, tracing people over time
    • Race can be fluid depending on events in people's lives
    • about 20% of all respondents changed race at some point during study
    • drops in social status lead to greater likelihood of identifying as black, boost in social status identifies more frequently as white
    • Racial classification can be fluid across time, place, and political systems (US census) as well as individuals
  14. “Black or White,” Trillin (1986)
    • not by sociologist
    • woman in Louisiana goes to get passport and is told she's black, even though she's never self-identified as black
    • we learn rules and regulations as she goes through this process
    • genes randomly assigned so can't be biological, court agrees and upholds social construct
  15. “The Mark of a Criminal Record,” Pager (2004)
    • Created fictitious resumes of two equally qualified people and design isolated effect of a criminal record, neutralizes social selection b/c we worry that going to prison is not entirely random
    • Black men got called back about half the time white men did, black men w/ a criminal got called back a third of the time white men w/ a criminal record
  16. “Thin Ice: ‘Stereotype Threat’ and Black College Students,” Steele (1999)
    • stereotype threat - fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype, a social fact b/c it's based on external factors not individuals
    • Black people took longer to answer test questions and changed answers more b/c they were trying to avoid proving negative stereotypes
    • Applies for gender too
    • Deactivated stereotype and gap was erased in Michigan college dorm, way to control to some degree
  17. “Doing Gender,” West and Zimmerman (1987)
    • gender is a social construct vs. sex which is anatomically determined
    • both men and women do gender, uphold and maintain this performance
    • embedded in everyday interactions, subconscious level many times in which we aren't aware
    • socially guided interactions that are cast as natural
    • a performance carried out in presence of others presumed to understand the cues
    • gender not a role b/c it doesn't change based on situations
    • institutional frameworks through which "our natural, normal sexedness" can be enacted (Goffman in W&Z, p. 137) like bathrooms, clothing stores, baby products, etc.
  18. Gender Play, Thorne (1993)—“Boys and Girls Together, but Mostly Apart”
    • Schools as primary point of socialization
    • Ethnography (scientific description of customs of individual people and cultures) of school children
    • Gender separation: self segregation, authorities segregate, why is it ok to segregate by gender but not other things?
    • Boys and girls are "familiar strangers"
  19. “The Gender Revolution: Uneven and Stalled,” England (2010)
    • meta-analysis pulling together a bunch of research to make a hypothesis, it was a lecture turned into article
    • women have moved into higher paying and higher status jobs but female-type jobs are devalued and low paying, asymmetric incentive to cross gender gap
    • prove gender gap by talking about feminized jobs and male-dominant degrees
    • "opportunity cost effect" prevails over the "need for income effect" 
    • "opportunity cost effect" - educated women have a greater opportunity cost of staying at home
    • "need for income effect" - uneducated women need income so they get a job
    • Personal realm: girls and women more likely to partake in "male" activities than other way around. Things defined as "feminine" haven't changed. Double standards like in dating.
    • Professional vs. blue-collar gender integration not equal
Card Set
Soc 1101 Readings Prelim 1
Titles of readings and their authors along with what it's about