Urinary System Pathologies

  1. Acute Renal Failure / ARF
    • Inability of kidney to produce metabolites at normal plasma levels.
    • Inability to retain electrolytes under normal intake conditions.

    • Uremia
    • Oliguria
    • Anuria
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Pulmonary edema

    Contrast does not filter through kidneys.
  2. Anuria
    Kidneys don't secrete urine.
  3. Bacteriuria
    Bacteria in the urine
  4. Calculus
    • One or more stones form in the kidney or bladder.
    • Many are opaque to radiographs.
    • May obstruct calyx, pelvis, ureter, or urethra.
  5. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Inability of a kidney to excrete metabolites
    • or
    • Inability of kidney to retain electrolytes

    May require hemodialysis or transplantation.
  6. Cystitis
    Inflammation of the bladder.
  7. Diuretic
    An agent that causes an increase of excretion of urine.
  8. Fecaluria
    Fecal matter in the urine.
  9. Glomerulonephrititis / Bright's Disease
    • Inflammation involving the glomeruli
    • Generally presents about 2 weeks after acute infection in patients 20 yo. or younger.
  10. Glucosuria
    Glucose in the urine
  11. Hematuria
    Blood in the urine
  12. Hydronephrosis
    • Dilation of a renal pelvis and calyces due to obstruction in renal pelvis or ureter.
    • Can occur in both ureters of a pregnant female due to pressure of fetus.
  13. Hypotension
    Below normal blood pressure
  14. Lasix
    Brand name for a diuretic
  15. Lithotripsy
    Therapeutic technique that uses acoustic waves to shatter large kidney stones into smaller particles that can be passed.
  16. Nephritis
    • Any inflammation of the kidneys.
    • Fairly common.
  17. Nephroptosis
    Excessive inferior displacement of the kidney when erect.  Kidney drops more than 2" below it's normal position in an upright patient.
  18. Nephrosis
    Degenerative disease of the renal tubules with gradual destruction.
  19. Oliguria
    Also: Hypouresis, Oligouresis

    • Low urine output in relation to fluid intake.
    • <400 ml / hr.
  20. Perinephritic Abscess
    An abscess about the kidney.
  21. Pneumouria
    Presence of gas in the urine

    Usually the result of a fistula between intestine and bladder.
  22. Polyuria
    • Excessive urination in relation to fluid intake
    • Common symptom of diabetes
  23. Proteinuria
    Or "Albuminuria"

    Excessive amounts of serum protein in the urine
  24. Pyelonephritis
    Infection in kidney caused by backflow of urine into ureter and kidney.
  25. Retention
    Inability to void

    Possibly due to obstruction in urethra or lack of sensation to urinate.
  26. Syncope
    Fainting caused by reduced cerebral blood flow.

    Post Micturation Syncope - fainting while or after urinating.
  27. Uremia
    Also called "Azotemia"

    • Excess urea ( or creatnine or other nitrogenous waste ) in the blood.
    • Often a symptom of renal insufficiency / chronic renal failure.
    • Pt. may have uremic odor on breath due to ammonia produced by breakdown of urea.
  28. Urinary incontinence
    Involuntary passage of urine through urethra.

    Commonly caused by loss of voluntary control of the vesical and urethral sphincters.
  29. Urinary Reflux
    Also called "Vesicoureteral Reflux"

    Backward or return flow of urine from bladder into ureter and kidney.

    A common cause of pyelonephritis - where backflow of urine may carry bacteria that can produce infection in the kidney.
  30. Urinary Tract Infection / UTI
    Infection caused by:

    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • fungi
    • certain parasites

    that frequently occurs in adults and children, often caused by urinary reflux.
  31. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia / BPH
    Enlarged prostate

    • Benign
    • Affects males over 50
    • Can cause urethral compression and obstruction
    • Can cause painful, frequent urination

    Floor of bladder may appear elevated or indented on IVU.
  32. Bladder Carcinoma
    • Tumor in the bladder
    • 3 times more common in men than women
    • Affects people over the age of 50
  33. Cystitis
    Inflammation of urinary bladder due to bacterial of fungal infection.

    Most often seen in females due to shorter urethra permits passage of external bacteria into the bladder.
  34. Glomerulonephritis / Bright's Disease
    < acute >
    Inflammation of the capillary loops of the glomeruli of the kidneys.

    IVU demonstrates enlarged kidney with reduced concentrations of contrast in collecting system.
  35. Glomerulonephritis / Bright's Disease
    < chronic >
    Inflammation of the capillary loops of the glomeruli of the kidneys.

    Sonography demonstrates small kidney with blunt, rounded calyces due to firbrosis and cortex destruction from long-standing inflammation.
  36. Polycystic Kidney Disease
    • Cysts scattered throughout one or both kidneys.
    • Most common cause of enlarged kidneys.
    • Can be genetic or congenital.
    • Infantile, childhood, or adult type < adult type is hereditary - disease is present at birth but symptoms not seen until adulthood >
  37. Staghorn Calculus
    • Large stone that grows and completely fills the renal pelvis and calyces, blocking the flow of urine.
    • Appears as deer antler.
    • Most commonly associated with chronic UTI.
  38. Hypernephroma / Renal Cell Carcinoma
    • Most frequent type of malignant tumor of the kidney.
    • 3 times more common in males
  39. Pyelonephritis
    Inflammation of kidney and renal pelvis due to pus-forming bacteria.
  40. Renal Hypertension
    • Increased blood pressure to the kidney through renal artery due to atherosclerosis.
    • Caused by excess renin in blood which causes excessive vasoconstriction.
  41. Severe Renal Hypertension
    Can result in localized necrosis of renal parenchyma.
  42. Renal Obstruction
    Caused by:

    • necrotic debris
    • calculus
    • thrombus
    • trauma

    Can lead to renal damage
  43. Vesicorectal ( vesicocolonic ) Fistula
    Fistula between urinary bladder and rectum or aspects of colon.
Card Set
Urinary System Pathologies
Urinary System Pathologies