Dairy2- Calving Management

  1. _______ of cow calve with no assistance.
  2. What is the goal for stillbirth calves on any given farm?
    <2% stillbirth
  3. What are the 3 stages of calving?
    • stage I: hormone changes, dilation of birth canal (ends when you see the amniotic sac outside the vulva)
    • stage II: labor and calf expulsion
    • stage III: passing fetal membranes
  4. When is a placenta considered retained?
  5. 2 landmarks for the beginning of stage II of parturition.
    amniotic sac, feet visible
  6. What are risk factors for lifetime performance of replacements? (4)
    calving difficulty (negative correlation), weaning age (negative correlation), days ill (diarrhea or pneumonia- negative correlation), weaning DMI (positive correlation)
  7. Define stillbirth.
    normal gestation length--> calf born dead or dies within 24hr of birth
  8. Poor hygiene at calving is related to __(2)__, leading to ___________.
    stocking density and feeding manage in pre-fresh cows; an increased incidence of metritis.
  9. How do you fix hip lock during calving?
    rotate the calf 90 degrees.
  10. #1 welfare issue that retail stores look at on farms?
    nerve damage due to pulling during calving--> down cows
  11. Describe how we can assess calving management on a farm- personnel training. (5)
    landmark references (appearance of amnion/legs), calving progress every 15 min, cow should not be in active labor for more than 2hrs, amnion visible for 70min--> bad, should walk the pens every single hour (frequency of observation)
  12. Leading risk factors for still birth. (9)
    diet, comfort, sire (EPD), personnel (training), breeding program, water quality (high sulfur- bad), expected calving date (do you actually know when she's going to calve- harder with bulls), primiparous, age at calving (too young small/ too old or fat-metabolic probs)
  13. Laggin risk factors/ indicators of stillbirth/calving management. (3)
    dystocia, stillbirth, calving time
  14. Risk factors of still birth that may be leading or lagging. (6)
    BCS, hypocalcemia, male calf, shift change of personnel, calf presentation, twins
  15. The longer the cow is in the dry pen, the ______ likely she is to have metabolic problems after calving.
  16. How should you determine how big a close-up pen should be on any given farm?
    look at the calving records from the previous year--> find the highest number of calving per week--> build the pen to accommodate 90% of this--> avoid over-stocking, will be understocked at times
  17. How is lying time related to incidence of still births?
    stillbirth decreases 1.3% for every hour of additional lying time; lying time is also directly related to DMI
Card Set
Dairy2- Calving Management
vetmed dairy2