HMWH Unit 7 Part 1

  1. Rhineland
    • March 7, 1936, Hitler sent troops to Rhineland
    • Rhineland was declared as demilitarized by the ToV
    • France had the right to fight for Rhineland, but they wouldn't unless they had British support, and Great Britain didn't support
    • Britain viewed the attack of German territory by German troops as a reasonable action of dissatisfied power
    • Britain said the Germans were only "going into their own back garden"
  2. Appeasement
    • A policy based on the belief that is European states satisfied the reasonable;e demands of unsatisfied powers, the unsatisfied powers would be content and stable and Europe would have peace
    • Great Britain practiced this when Rhineland was attacked by Hitler
  3. Rome-Berlin Axis
    • Hitler allied with Mussolini
    • Mussolini wanted to create a new Roman Empire in the Mediterranean
    • Hitler had helped Fascists invade Ethiopia in October 1935
    • 1936, Germany and Italy sent troops to help Franco in the Spanish Civil War
    • The Rome-Berlin Axis was the alliance between Germany and Italy
    • Germany and Japan signed the Anit-Comintern Pact which was against communism
  4. Anschluss
    • Hitler made an Anschluss, or union, with Austria in 1938
    • The new govn invited German troops to enter Austria and helped reinforce law and order
    • One day later, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany
  5. Munich Conference
    • Hitler wanted to destruct Czechoslovakia
    • Sept 15, 1938, Hitler demanded Sudetenland would be given to Germany
    • Hitler arranged the Munich Conference
    • British, French, German, and Italian representatives didn't object to Hitler's plans
    • German troops were allowed to occupy Czechoslovakia after Hitler and Chamberlain (Great Britain) had created an appeasement
    • Hitler promised Chamberlain that he would not make any more demands (like many others, he believed Hitler)
  6. Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
    • Hitler feared the Soviet Union and the West might make an alliance and create a two-front war for Germany
    • August 23, 1939, Germany and the USSR signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and promised not to attack each other
    • Because Hitler was going to fight the Soviet Union anyway, it didn't matter what he promised Stalin
    • Sept 1, Germany attacked Poland, and two days later, France and Britain attacked Germany
  7. Manchuria
    • Sept 1931, Japan seized Manchuria since it had natural resources Japan needed
    • Was carried out by the Japs disguised as Chinese
    • Japan w/drew from the LoN when he investigators issued a report preventing the seizure
    • The next several years, Japan strengthened its hold on Manchuria, later renamed Manchukuo, and began to expand northern China
    • Us refused to recognize Japs takeover of Manchuria but was unwilling to threaten force
  8. Economic Sanctions
    • Restrictions intended to enforce international law
    • Japan badly needed oil and scrap iron from US
    • They decided to launch a surprise attack on the US and European colonies in Southeast Asia
  9. Blitzkrieg
    • "Lightening war"
    • Hitler used panzer divisions to attack Poland swiftly and efficiently
    • The forced broke quickly through Polish lines and encircled Polish troops
    • Sept 28, 1939, Germany and USSR divided Poland
  10. Maginot Line
    • A series of concrete and steel fortifications armed w/ heavy artillery along France's border w/ Germany
    • German panzer divisions broke French defensive positions and races across northern France
    • French and British forces were surprised when Germany went around the Maginot Line instead of across, which split Allied armies and trapped French troops and the entire British army
    • June 22, French signed an armistice and German armies occupied about 3/5ths of France
  11. Isolationism
    • Pres Franklin D. Roosevelt denounced aggressors, but the US followed a strict policy of isolationism
    • Prevented the US from taking sides or being involved in any European wars
    • Roosevelt felt the acts encouraged Axis aggression and wanted acts removed
    • They were slowly relaxed as the US supplied food, ships, planes, and weapons to Britain
  12. Battle of Britain
    • The Luftwaffe (German air force) bombed the British air and naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and war industries
    • British fought back w/ radar systems that gave them advatage
    • Hitler hoped to break British morale, but the British were able to rebuild their air strength quickly
    • Soon the British were harming the Luftwaffe bombers
    • Hitler postponed the invasion indefinitely at the end of Sept
  13. Invasion of the Soviet Union
    • Hitler believed he USSR had a weak army and could be defeated quickly
    • The invasion was delayed, so Hitler ended up invading June 1941, thinking the Soviet Union would be defeated before winter
    • Battle stretched out for 1,800 miles and Germans advanced rapidly and captured 2 million Russian soldiers
    • An early winter and fierce Soviet resistance had stopped German advance
    • A counterattack in Dec 1941 by Soviets came as an ominous ending to the year for the Germans
  14. Pearl Harbor
    • Dec 7, 1941, Japs aircraft attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and the same day, other Japs launched assaults on the Philippines and began advancing towards Malaya
    • Spring 1942, almost all of Southeast Asia and much of western Pacific had been conquered
    • Japan had hoped the attack at US bases would destroy the US fleet in the Pacific and the US would accept their domination, but BOY WERE THEY WRONG!
    • This attack had caused Americans to be involved w/ war and joined Europe and China to defeat Japan
    • Four days later, German and US were at war and it had turned into a global war, WWII
  15. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
    • Japan declared a community of nations that would be under Japs rule
    • Japs announced they would liberate colonial areas of Southeast Asia from Western rule
  16. Unconditional Surrender
    • Required Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) to surrender w/o any favorable condition
    • 1943, Allies (US, Great Britain, Soviet Union) agreed to fight until Axis Powers surrendered unconditionally
    • It cemented the Great Alliance by making it nearly impossible for Hitler to divide his foes
  17. Erwin Rommel
    • Nicknamed "Desert Fox" and commanded Reich's Afrika Korps
    • His tactics helped the Germans break through British defenses in Egypt and advance through Alexandria
    • British forces stopped Rommel's troops at El Alamein and Germans retreated
    • Nov 1942, US and British forces invaded French North Africa and forced German and Italian troops to surrender May 1943
  18. Battle of Stalingrad
    • Between Nov 1942 and Feb 1943, Hitler decided to takeover Stalingrad, which became the most terrible battle of the war
    • German troops were stopped and surrounded and supply lines were cut off during winter
    • Hitler knew that he could not take over Soviet Union after that
  19. Battle of the Coral Sea
    May 7-8, 1942, US naval forced stopped Japs advance and saved Australia from invasion
  20. Battle of Midway
    • June 4, Asia came to Midway Island
    • US planes destroyed four attacking Japs aircraft carriers and defeated Japs navy
    • Fall 1942, Allied forces in Asia gathered two operations
    • 1) Commanded by Douglas MacArthur and would move into the Philippines through New Guinea and South Pacific Islands
    • 2) Would move across Pacific w/ a combination if US Army, Marine, and Navy attacks on Japs-held islands
    • Japs fortunes were fading after a series of bitter battles
Card Set
HMWH Unit 7 Part 1
Rhineland, Appeasement, Rome-Berlin Axis, Anschluss, Munich Conference, Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Manchuria, Economic Sanctions, Blitzkrieg, Maginot Line, Isolationism, Battle of Britain, Invasion of the Soviet Union, Pearl Harbor, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Unconditional Surrender, Erwin Rommel, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Coral Sea, Battle of Midway