Praxis II World and US History Study Guide

  1. When did people begin migrating from Asia to North America across a land-bridge that formed as water receded?
    Between 15,000 and 30,000 years ago
  2. Paleolithic Age
    Old Stone Age
  3. Neolithic Period
    In the Middle East, the sedentary agriculture was based on barley, wheat, and pigs.
  4. Suez Crisis, 1956
    A military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel
  5. Yalta Conference
    Established new boundaries for Poland.
  6. The Silk Road
    Trade routes across the Asian. Spread Buddhism from India to China
  7. Mesolithic Period
    Middle part of the Stone Age
  8. The Neolithic Revolution
    Was the first agricultural revolution
  9. Sparta
    Was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence.
  10. Oligarchy
    A form of government in which power effectively rests with a small eliteMixed government    Also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy.
  11. Athenian democracy
    A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy. It remains a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy where the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right. Greek democracy created at Athens was a direct, not a representative democracy: any adult male citizen of age could take part, and it was a duty to do so
  12. Pax Romana
    A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire
  13. Diocletian
    Roman emperor who separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and re-organized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire.
  14. Eastern Orthodox Church
    Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia.
  15. Constantine
    Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
  16. Hinduism
    An eastern religion which followers strive to free their soul from reincarnation until the soul is finally freed. This religion is practiced primarily in India
  17. Buddhism
    The teaching that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth.
  18. Confucianism
    A philosophy that most emphasizes proper relationships as the basis for social and political order. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
  19. Byzantine Empire
    A continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395, rose out of the split of East and Western Roman Empire; lasted another 1000 years; kept Hellenism alive; fell in 1453 by the Ottomans
  20. Ottoman Empire
    Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
  21. Mayans
    A Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas
  22. Aztecs
    Settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
  23. Incas
    A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America, center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
  24. Magellan
    He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain., Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
  25. Vasco Da Gama
    Portuguese explorer, 1st to sail to India
  26. Copernicus
    Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
  27. Galileo
    Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars;Newton    This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
  28. Locke
    Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
  29. Renaissance
    The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European historyIndustrial Revolution    The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
  30. Marxism
    The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded
  31. Mohandas Gandhi
    A philosopher from India, practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
  32. Facism
    A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
  33. Communism
    A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
  34. League of Nations
    International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
  35. Chinese Revolution
    The struggle between Nationalists and Communists forces in China that began in the 1920's and ended in 1949 with a Communist victory
  36. Laissez-faire economics
    Means allowing industry to be free from state intervention, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies.
  37. Shintoism
    Was 1st religion of Japan before the coming of Buddhism. It is the necessity of being loyal to one's ancestors.
  38. Empiricism
    Knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment.
  39. Diffusion Theory
    The spread of ideas and technology through human contacts.
  40. The European Union
    Is an economic and political union between 27 member countries, located primarily in Europe. Committed to regional integration, it has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states, ensuring the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital. It maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.
  41. Truman Doctrine
    supports the containment of Communism-US announces Marshall Plan aid program for Western Europe-Independence from Britain and Partition of India (Hindu)...Pakistan (Muslim)
  42. Mesopotamia
    Modern day Iraq, "Land Between the Rivers" - Tigris and Euphrates-Cities first appeared in Southern part, "Sumer", city-states-From villages to cities - why? Problems and how they solved them: 1. Food shortages in Northern Hills, 2. Uncontrolled water supply on plains, 3. Difficulties building/maintaining irrigation systems, 4. Attacks by neighbors-Ur, Lagash, Uruk
  43. Buddhism
    Origins: 563-483 B.C.E., India, "Awakened One," Before becoming Buddha was 29yrold prince Siddhartha Gautama, became ascetic, didn't work, "middle way" to balance pleasure and pain, meditate under Bodhi tree, became Buddha age 35, truths became The Four Noble Truths Beliefs: Embrace all regardless of caste, way of life based on simple teachings, how to reach enlightenment/nirvana based on deep truths - once reached, no longer reborn again and again. All things change. 4 Noble Truths, 8 Fold Pat
  44. Four Noble Truths
    - Buddhism    1. Suffering is present in all things, nothing lasts forever, 2. Suffering is caused by cravings/desires/wants, 3. End suffering by giving up all cravings, 4. Way to give up all cravings is to live life according to 8-fold path
  45. Paleoanthropologists
    Studies human development and culture, specializing in early hominids
  46. Stone Age
    From 2 million years ago to 3000 B.C.E. Got its name from the tools people made of stone-Paleolithic Age - Old Stone Age - food by hunting wild animals and gathering nuts, berries, etc.
  47. New Stone Age
    Neolithic Age - by 8000-3000 B.C.E. some began raising animals and crops, SETTLED. New jobs and specialization, trade, grow population. One of most important advances people have ever made. Ended when people learned to make tools out of metal.
  48. Characteristics that make a Culture a Civilization, Sumer example
    1. Stable food supply - invented irrigation and plow2. Social structure - different social levels/jobs- upper lived in center, lower on edge of city3. Government system - create order - ruled by kings, taxes, and led army (First to have written enforced laws!)4. Religious system - beliefs and forms of worship - ziggurats5. Highly developed culture - arts painting, architecture, music, literature6. Technology advances - invented wheel approx 3500 BCE, the Arch of buildings7. Written language - highly developed - cuneiform
  49. Confucianism
    -Lead by Example, One of three main philosophies that emerged at the end of the Zhou dynasty (1045-256 b.c.e) to explain how to have peace and order in society.-Teachings of Kongfuzi (lived 551-479 b.c.e)-Goal = just and peaceful society, society worked well when the five basic relationships are respected-Collection of sayings = The Analects. Used during Han Dynasty, major influence on Chinese culture, civil servant jobs came to be based on ability
  50. Daoism
    Rule as little as possible, Lao-tzu/Laozi book of Dao De JingReturn to simple and natural living-Yin (shaded) and Yang (sunlit) - happiness and peace by living in harmony with the way of nature - balancing-Accept what comes, don't search for fame power knowledge-Too many laws got in the way of living naturally-Influenced leaders to be less harsh, but ultimate influence on writing, though, art - eventually a popular religion
  51. Han Dynasty
    (206 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles - created bureaucracy; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity, increased trade and military achievements, expanded empire-Majority of Chinese today are considered Han people
  52. Peloponnesian Wars
    Lasted 27 years (431 b.c.e. to 404 b.c.e.), Sparta won-Sparta was most powerful city for a time, then defeated later by Thebes-Years of fighting weakened Greece as Macedonia and Philip II grew stronger, allowed opening for advancement of Macedonians and eventually the fall of the Greek Empire (was mostly conquered by Phillip II by 338 b.c.e)-Machiavelli, Thucydides
  53. Causes of WWII
    1. Treaty of Versailles - Germany not happy with War guilt cause 2. axis powers: Germany, Italy, Japan. Hitler creates treaty with Stalin(non-aggression pact) 1931-japan invades Manturia 1933-Hitler comes to power1939-Hitler invades Poland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, (this causes Britain and France to declare war on Germany) December 7, 1941- Pearl Harbor, US pulled into the war when the Japanese bomb the naval fleet-Germany declares war on US because they are allies with Japan-Pearl Harbor - we had stopped selling oil/metal to Japan, we declared war on them, Germany declared on us
  54. Consequences of WWII
    Millions killed, US became world power, USSR now distrusted because of imperialist behavior, US helps reshape Japan, went from Isolationist to international, US established, Israel, decolonization and independence for many colonized countries
  55. Early civilizations settlement patterns
    -tended to settle where irrigation would be unnecessary or easily accomplished
  56. Spread of Islam to Asia
    -The Strait of Malacca-done through the trade; Muslim merchants/ sailors introduced local peoples to the ideas and rituals of the new faith and impressed them on how much of the known world had already been converted
  57. Tang Dynasty
    Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia-618-907, capital = Chang'an. Confucian ruler.-Maintained empire through a system of roads with horses, human runners, inns, postal stations, and stables. -Equitable distribution of agricultural land kept land out of the hands of wealthy elite. -Government jobs in extensive bureaucracy were merit based, determined through a series of civil service examination. Military conquests included Manchuria, Tibet, Korea and the northern part of Vietnam
  58. Voltaire
    -Enlightenment-Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
  59. The Wealth of Nations
    written by Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics-criticized mercantilism and promoted market with "invisible hand"
  60. The Communist Manifesto
    written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations
  61. The Reformation
    -beginning in 1517, when Martin Luther challenged some of the basic practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, gave the English people religious motives for colonization in the Americas.
  62. Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses
    These questions posted on the door of a Church, helped to promote religious reforms within the Roman Catholic Church.-written in 1517, primary catalyst for Protestant Reformation-protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences-Posted on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg Germany
  63. The Enlightenment 1700's
    The center was in France-A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
  64. The Dark Ages
    time period after the Fall of Rome when Western Europe was continually invaded, trade slowed, and classical learning ceased.-After fall of Roman Empire, approximately yrs. 500-1000c.e
  65. The Scientific Revolution 1500-1700 c.e.
    began during the Renaissance; provided the model of a rational world, 1550-1700
  66. The Renaissance 1300-1500's c.e.
    Italy, the great rebirth of art, literature, and learning in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries which marked the transition from the medieval to modern periods of European history., A new way of thinking. Which lead to future reforms for the catholic church and ultimately different religons-expansion of trade, contact of culture somewhat contributed to the crusades, rulers began to tax people-artists - da Vinci, Michelangelo,
  67. Voltaire- Enlightenment
    -freedom of thought and expression-1694-1778; Incarcerated in the Bastille; exile in England; response to absolutism, irrational religion (as he saw it), superstition, oppression, and unfair judicial system. Remember, the French Revolution is not far away.-religious tolerance, fought for civil rights—the right to a fair trial and freedom of religion
  68. Rousseau - Enlightenment
    -1712-1788, liberalism influence, Rousseau holds that "uncorrupted morals" prevail in the "state of nature", morality was innate, not a societal construct and criticized Hobbes-The Social Contract - most important work
  69. Japan vs. Europe Feudalism
    -Japan - 12-15th century-Europe - 8-15th century-Similar - King/Shogun, Samurai/English Knight, Lords/Daimyos, code of honor-Differences - religion/Christianity/Zen Buddhism, japanese had no true pyramid
  70. The Meiji Restoration in Japan
    approx 1868Causes: The US wanted Japan to open trade, so they decided to rapidly modernize and industrialize to catch up with the rest of the world. -The outdated Samurai's weak response to demands to open Japan to foreign trade. -Effects: Modernization and industrialization of Japan, shift from Samurai government to modern government.-goal was to combine "western advances" with the traditional, "eastern" values
  71. Tet Offensive
    a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
  72. Mongol Empire
    1206-1368, rivals of Tatars, success due to horsemanship, endurance, ferocity in battle, military tactics, male dominated, -Genghis Khan, real name Temujin, revenge fathers death-overran Asia, Afghanistan, Persia, parts of Russia-died in 1227, Four Khanates - China, central Asia, Persia, Russia, grandson became "Great Khan", Kublai Khan, ended the Song Dynasty and established the Yuan Dynasty During time of Marco Polos travels
  73. Kingdom of Ghana
    First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (8-11th century). Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali, it acted as intermediary between Arab and Berber salt traders to the north and gold and ivory producers to the south.-gold was principal commodity and source of power
  74. Song Dynasty
    -960-1279, after Tang Dynasty, Confucius Civil Service Exam, ended by Mongols, Kublai Khan the "Great Khan" who established the Yuan Dynasty
  75. Ming Dynasty
    1368-1644, used weakness of Mongols and the plague to take over, hated rich, good but harsh rule Zhu Yuanzhang, again civil service exam used, slavery abolished, estates redistributed to peasants, equitable taxes, agriculture economic system unlike Song that relied on trading population doubled-great wall restored, built Beijing, the Forbidden City, isolationism, sea power
  76. Hobbes influence on Enlightenment
    He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue). Otherwise what awaits us is a "state of nature" that closely resembles civil war -strong central govt. needed to avoid war, conflict
  77. Boxer Rebellion
    1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
  78. Kingdom of Mali
    a huge territorial empire that flourished in west Africa during the 13th and 14th centuries (after Kingdom of Ghana) Its capital was Timbuktu, which became a center of Islamic learning (see Islam). The empire controlled trade routes that stretched from the edge of the Sahara in the north to forests in the south and that carried gold and other luxuries
  79. Kingdom of Songhai
    The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state centered in eastern Mali. From the early 15th to the late 16th Century, Songhai was one of the largest African empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a small Songhai state had existed since the 9th Century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger and Burkina Faso.-after the Kingdoms of Ghana and Mali
  80. Plessy v. Ferguson
    (1896) Court ruled segregation wasn't discriminatory (didn't violate civil rights under 14th Amndmnt), -Plessy was 1/8 black, facilities equal access, not quality, Plessy boarded white train. Significant because it established that racial segregation was protected under the law ("Separate but Equal")-Reversed in 1954 by the case of Brown vs. the Board of Education
  81. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    1954: overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, declared seperate schools for blacks and rights unconstitutional.-Thurgood Marshall, black lawyer, won case-Linda Brown had to walk 21 blocks to get to a blacks only school, when she lived only 7 blocks away from a whites school.
  82. Republican core ideas
    Each person responsible for own place in society, limiting government intervention, power kept close to people, free enterprise, less taxes, anti-abortion and gay marriage, strong national defense, strong immmigration
  83. Democrat core ideas
    equality and lowering income gap, social services, regulation on businesses, soft power, pro choice, fair taxes, working class, separation of church and state
  84. Proclamation of 1763
    Proclamation of 1763 - -Proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of Appalachian Mountains, and required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.-Part of Treaty of Paris that ended war-Result of Pontiac's Rebellion to reduce friction between Native American and settlers, protect fur trade, and keep western land speculation under the control of the crown
  85. 1756-1763 - The Seven Years War
    - French and Indian War (N.A. portion) -War between British and French over North America
  86. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    Abolitionist, Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery. Enraged Southerners against North
  87. Manifest Destiny
    Coined in the 1840s by the Jacksonian Democrats, was the belief that the United States was "destined" to spread from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Used to promote the annexation of most of the Western United States (Oregon Territory, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cessation). Always regarded as a general notion rather than a specific policy.
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Praxis II World and US History Study Guide
A few terms needed to help someone study for the Tennesee state history praxis exams