- Gardar- c. 860 went to claim Hebrides (a small island west of Sweden), belonged to his wife. Got lost in a storm and landed on a different island, Iceland, called by the Icelanders Lydveldid Island. Spent the winter there. In the spring sailed around the island, named it Gardarsholm, and moved back to sweden. Naddod - was fleeing the Faeroe Islands, blown off course in a storm and stumbled upon Iceland, named it Snaeland - or "Snowland." Naddod went back to Scandinavia.
- Floki Vilgerdarson - set out intentionally to explore Iceland, hoped to settle it. Took three ravenson the ship. Set his birds free one at a time, fist two came back, third one flew to land. Floki followed and found Iceland again. Arrived in summer, pasture for livestock and plenty of fish and seals to feed Floki and his men. When winter came cattle starved, and bad weather prevented them from sailing home.
- Spent 2 winters. Floki named the island Iceland. Viking cousins Ingolf Amarson and Hjarleif wanted to settle iceland permanently. To afford the trip Hjarleif plundered villages in Ireland and took 10 Irish slaves. By 874, made Ice land a home for themselves. Icelandic Folklore says that Ingolf founded Iceland's capital city Reykjavik (means "smoky bay"). By 930 there were over 20,000 people living in Iceland. Unlike other countries there was no king of Iceland, the people voted to set up regions called things, the things each had a chief to settle disputes. The regions came together and formed one of the worlds first parliaments, they called it Althing, still in existence today. Before the Vikings moved to Iceland, a few irish monks lived there, and moved out when the Vikings moved in. volcano and geysers. Iceland nicknamed "Land of Fire and Ice"
The Maori of New Zealand
- New Zealand - a cluster of islands in the south Pacific. The Maori (means native) arrived in New Zealand between 900 and 1300. Legend - explorer by the name of Kupe first to arrive and named it Ao-tea-roa meaning "land of the long white cloud". Brought dogs, rats & edible plants. From other Polynesian islands. Oceania - Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Polynesia - From Hawaii to islands off S. America, to New Zealand. Polynesians tallest of Oceania peoples, and had lightest skin color. New Zealand about the size of Italy, three islands, north island, south island, and steward island. Moa - large flightless bird, 13 feet tall, main source of meat for the Maori , by the 1800's, extinct.
- Kiwi- Small flightless round brown fuzzy bird named by the Maori by the sound it makes. National symbol of New Zealand. Geysers, mountains, waterfalls, and fjords. Maori customs and traditions - Moko - tattooing elaborate patterns, used for identification. A Moko artist was like a priest, chanted and prayed while working, (Maori worshipped gods of nature) sharp bones used to pierce skin, could only be tolerated for short segments of time, so some Moko took years to complete. Women's dances include twirling of the poi , a ball on a string. Men wr dances, they stick out their tonuges and bulge their eyes to intimidate enemies. Carving greenstone, or pounamu - jade, useful and decorative, gathered on difficult expeditions on South Island, lasted months. 1,500 unique species of plants. No written records. Unknown to Europeans untill 1642, when Dutch explorer Abel Tasman found it and named it Nieuw Zeeland, after Zeeland province in Netherlands. Tasman terrified of the firce Maori & did not land on the island. Over 100 years later Captian James Cook made maps of the Islands from his explorations, brought pigs from England, and pigs in New Zealand are called "Captain Cookers" to this day. Maori call the europeans pakeha. Treaty of Waitangi - signed between European and Maoi in 1840 , to keep Maori safe from invasion. It failed, fighting for years. Europeans did bring gospel to Maori.
- c. 900
The Great Zimbabwe of Africa
- Kingdom of Kush (Nubians) - what is now Sudan. Main city - island of Meroe, actually not really an island, located where Nile divides into two smaller rivers. Traded with China and West Africa.
- Kushites built pyramids, trained elephants as weapons of war, advanced ironmaking, swimming pool with lion head waterspouts, and at one time ruled over the Egyptians. But by A.D. 250 dissapeared. Kushite writings not yet disiphered.
The Nok - emerged between 1000 & 500 B.C. In what is now Nigeria. Like the Kushites, dark skinned and good iron makers. Also artistic, terra cotta faces of the Nok people. Nok disappeared around A.D. 250
- Great Zimbabwe - "great stone house", built stone buildings without mortar, still stand today. 3 distinct sets of stone buildings - hill ruins - 300 ft. Above the rest, natural cave there. Elliptical Building - Probably home of the King and other leaders, walls 32 ft. high & 16 ft. thick. Elliptical Building tall cone shaped tower. Between elliptical building and hill ruins are the valley of ruins - where 10 district structures are, probably housed less important community leaders. Dagas, mud huts, would have covered the area of the valley or ruins where most of the people lived. Each location, the stone ruins made of granite cut to fit together without mortar. The structures not perfect enough to allow roof coverings. Busy, most of the 10,000 residents farmers, evidence of trade route, gold plentiful as well as copper and iron.
- c. 900
"Good King Wenceslas"
- Methodius & Cyril - visited Czechoslovakia, shared gospel with the Prince of Czechoslovakia & Ludmilla his wife, grandparents of Wenceslas. At age 13, his father, the Duke of Bohemia killed in battle, moved in with his grandparents. His mother Drahomira was a pagan, she did not like his grandparents Christian influence on him. Drahomira had Ludmilla murdered. Wenceslas brought to his mother, who involved him in pagan traditions. Worshiped God in secret. In 922 Drahomira was banished for murder of Ludmilla, and Wenceslas became the Duke of Bohemia at age 18. Strong Christian ruler. Brought his mother back from banishment, and forgave her. He gave clothes and shelter to the needy, bought the freedom of slaves. Invited missionaries to Bohemia from Germany, and settled a dispute in a duel rather than send his army to war. "Good King Wenceslas" - Christmas carol (Wenceslas was duke, not king), tells of Wenceslas and his page go to give a poor man a meal on a cold night. Boleslav - Wenceslas's pagan brother, invited him to a feast at church. When warned that Boleslav might try to kill him, went anyway. On September 28, 929, Boleslav tried to kill Wenceslas, who forgave him, other nobles killed him. Was only 25 years old. Buried at the church of St. Vitus in Prauge, Czechoslovakia.
Otto I and the Holy Roman Empire
- Holy Roman Empire - neither holy or Roman. Otto I - or Otto the Great, became King of Germany in 936, conquered many princes in surrounding regions to establish power. The Slavs of Poland & Bohemia & the Magyars (Hungarians) revolted against Otto, so at the Battle of Lech River in 955 forced the Poles, Bohemians, & the king of Burgundy under Otto's rule. Married the Widow of the earlier king of Italy. The Pope summoned his help to put down a uprising in Italy which he did. So Poe John XII Crowned Otto as Holy Roman Emperor of the West" Emperor Augustus" and his kingdom was known as the Holy Roman Empire. Up to 1806, every king of Germany after Otto I was called "Roman Emperor" (The word Holy was added by Emperor Barbarossa in 1155. Since then historians call all the kings from this line as Holy Roman Emperors, and some even name Charlemagne as the First Holy Roman Emperor, but he was not) Otto I forced Christianity on people. From 965-1075 Germany was the most prosperous country in Europe.
Vladimir I of Russia
Russia : as early as the seventh century B.C. people from Greece and Persia (Scythians) migrated into Russia and started cites there. Traders lived near the Black Sea. Towns grew, Sochas, Olbia, Tanais, Theodosia, and Panticapaeum. By second century BC. Samaritans moved in pushing the Scythians out, then the Goths, then the Huns. Eventually southern Russia was a mixture of several nomadic tribes: the Bulgars, the Slavs, the Khazars, the Magyars and the Mongols. These people had very different belief systems. In the capital city of Itil, there were seven courts, two for Jews, two for Christians, two for Muslims, and one for Pagans. Itil on the mouth of the Volga riverine between the Baltic and Caspian Seas and was one of the Largest trade cites in the world by the 700's. By mid9thcentury the Vikings had located and settled land from Kiev to Novgorod. They called themselves the Rus (Were the name Russia came from) and Rurik was their first leader. Vladimir I, descendant of Rurik, born about 956 was the 5th Grand Duke of Kiev. Early in his life learned Christianity from his Grandmother. Established churches all across Russia. Sent representitives to the Western orthodox Church (Roman Catholic Church) and the Eastern Orthodox Church (Greek Orthodox Church) in the Byzantine Empire. He wasn't shire what kind of church he was going to set up. Representatives that visited the Eastern Orthodox Church very impressed with the way the Eastern Orthodox churches looked, so Vladimir I chose the Eastern Orthodox Church and had missionaries from Constantinople build a church in Russia. Also forced Christianity on his people. Built schools, libraries, and new cities, he promoted trade and protected Russia from neighbors. Married Byzantine Princess Anna, and had a son Yaroslav the Wise. The Saint Sophia cathedral in Kiev built during the reign of Yaroslav.
The Song Dynasty of China
- Tang Dynasty Collapses in 906, 5 different emperors tried to make China strong again. None were successful. General Zhao Kuang Yin (927-976) stole the throne from a 7 year old, and started the Song Dynasty in 960. Made Kaifeng his capital. Natural moat, at the heart of the new empire, great site for trading. Hundreds of 24-hour restaurants, markets and theaters plentiful. Military not strong, but song dynasty lasted until 1279. Confucius's teachings reborn. Confucius believed the poor were some of the most important people in the nation, because they did the farming to feed the nation. Social hierarchy of China: the Emperor, The Shi - nobles, The Nong - peasant farmers , The Gong, Artists, The Shang - Merchants, The Soldiers, Slaves (little slavery existed in China). Strange to Europeans, who placed Soldiers and Knights second, and the poor at the bottom. Inventions - paper money, movable type (invented by Bi Sheng) (significant publication The Dream Stream Essays, by Sheng Kuo in 1041.),explosive weapons (bow and arrow set triggered by gun powder). Arabs called gunpowder "China snow", Porcelain (made from coal dust and white clay (kaolin), in Zhejiang province, kiln that found fire 25,000 pots at one time), Acupuncture, compass needle. Art flourished, Mi Feng - one of China's most famous artists well known for painting with the "Method of Blobs"- created scenes without lines. Foot binding - Chinese considered a woman more buitiful if her feet were tiny "Lily feet". foot binding way to force women's feet to be smaller, cruel painful and caused great Deformity.
St. Simon and the Coptic Orthodox Church
- Coptic Orthodox Church - Coptic - European version of Arabic word for Egyptian - kibt. This church claims to have been started by the Apostle Mark. As Christianity spread, Ancient Egyptian beliefs and customs faded. By AD 300 Coptic Church in Alexandria, Egypt one of the strongest in the world. (Broke away from Eastern and Western Churches). Copts made beautiful tapestries and painted archways. In 642 Arabs invaded Egypt, made it difficult not to be a Muslim, those who did not convert to Islam were heavily taxed. Many Christians outwardly converted to Islam. Copts persecuted by Caliphs of Egypt. c. 979Caliph Moaz Ladeen Allah El Fatimy - enjoyed debates as entertainment in his court. Held Debate between Christian bishop Sawiras and Jewish Scholar Moses. Sawiras told the caliph that the Jews were "Ignorant" according to their own scriptures and claimed to "prove" it by reading Isaiah 1:3. The Caliph laughed, Moses outraged. Tried to make Sawiras look foolish with the New Testament. Chose Matthew 17:20. The Caliph decided to put these words to the test. In three days they had 4 choices: 1. Move a Mountain 2. Convert to Islam 3. Leave Egypt 4. Be Killed.
- The Pope of the Coptic Church asked all members to pray for a miracle. On the third day around 4 AM the Pope belived he had received a special message from God in a dream - " Go find a man with enough faith to move a Mountian, he will be carrying water". He found Simaan El Kharaz - a poor shoemaker who carried water for elderly at 4 AM before work. Agreed to move a mountain only if he would remain anonymous in the crowd and if he would not speak of him till after he died. A crowd gathered later that morning at Mokattam Mountain. Simon was hidden in the crowd. According to the Coptic church, the pope prayed, the Christians chanted "forgive us" 400 times, then bowed 3 times , each time they bowed the mountain rose high enough so that the sun could be seen between the Mountian and the ground. The caliph shouted praises to God and begged the Christians to stop. He decreed that the Christians would be free under his rule. When Simon died was named Saint and a church on Mokattam Mountian built in his name. Today it ministers to a large population of peopl who live and work in a garbage dump on the mountain.
Eric The Red and the Settlement of Greenland
Born in Norway, called Eric the Red because of his distinctive red hair. At age 15 his father killed a man in a dispute, they were forced to move to Iceland, good pastureland taken up by other immigrants, forced to live further north were much colder. Eric married Thjodhild, the daughter of a tribal chief, and they had a son Leif Ericsson Eric had a dispute with his neighbor and killed two people exiled from Iceland for 3 years, could not go to Norway because of his fathers reputation. Decided to go and explore an island west. - c. 900 a sailor had been blown off course and discovered an island that he named skerries.