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- Nineveh, founded by Nimrod, Noah's great grandson. Nimrod also founded other cities like Babylon. Nineveh, (group of cities) one of the oldest cities of the ancient world. Huge, It stretched as far as 30 mi. At least 1 million people lived there. A 100 foot wall, high towers, and three moats surrounded the city. Three chariots could be side by side on top of the walls. The Assyrians were fierce. built catapults and battering rams, and tortured (skinned/removed body parts of) prisoners. The prophets warned them, but they did not listen. Zephaniah warned them of their coming destruction. Nahum prophesied that Ninevah wold be destroyed by a flood. Around 612 B.C. A flood caused some of the walls to erode and collapse. With no wall, the city was destroyed by their enemies: The Medes, Sythians, and Babylonians. Ninevah never recovered. The Assyrians lost control of Mesopotamia.
- For nearly 2,000 years Ninevah was buried under the earth. Archeologists found it in the mid-1800's. 1/3 of Ashurbanipal's Library (held 100,000 volumes of writings) is on display in England. Also found Sennacherib's palace.
- 612 B.C.
Habakkuk and Huldah
Habakkuk lived in Judah at the same time as Jeremiah. Habakkuk wrote to God, was bothered with the sins of the Jews. God told him that He would put an end to the evil of His people by letting the Chaldeans (Babylonians) take over Judah for a time. God warned Habakkuk against man-made idols.
Huldah was a prophetess, she lived at the time of Habakkuk and Jeremiah. King Josiah had her verify that the book of the law was real/help the people understand it. She must have been well respected because they did listen.
- God may have spoken through hundreds of prophets and prophetesses that aren't mentioned in the Bible. Babylonians now control Mesopotamia.
- 607 B.C.
The Babylonian Captivity
- c.100 yrs. after Assyrians conquered Israel, Babylonians conquered Judah. Isaiah, Micah, Zephaniah, an Jeremiah warned the Jews of going into captivity, if they did not repent. Nebuchadnezzar II captured king Jehoikim and made him prisoner. The youth of Jerusalem (including Daniel) were also taken to Babylon. It took several yrs. to conquer Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar had to return two more times to recapture it completely. Appointed 2 "puppet kings" to rule after Jehoikim, Jehoichin and Zedekiah. With no real kings, Judah was in bad condition for years. Families were separated, marketplaces, businesses and farms were lost or abandoned. Food was scarce. Some were taken, some were left behind. Hezekiah's Tunnel - secret underwater tunnel that goes from the Spring of Gihon to the Pool of Siloam, 1,700 ft. through solid rock. It kept the Jews alive for the last few years.
- In 586 B.C. Zedekiah's sons were killed in front of him, then he was blinded and taken as prisoner. Nebuchadnezzar took the rest of the treasures and burned the city to the ground. Most of the people in Judah were eventually taken to Babylonia. Only poor, old, and crippled were left to till the soil. 70 year captivity. Jeremiah wrote about this time in Lamentations.
- 605, 597, 586 B.C.
Nebuchadnezzar II and the Hanging Gardens
- Nebuchadnezzar II - strong military, great builder. Ishtar Gate - archway leading to a temple. named after a goddess. had blue brick, lions, dragons, reconstructed in museum in Berlin. Hanging Gardens - for Nebuchadnezzar's homesick wife, one of the seven wonders of the world, ziggurat covered in plants and trees. Nebuchadnezzar - frightening dreams - God helped Daniel reveal what the dreams meant. Prideful - because of this, he was driven out of his kingdom and had to live like an animal for seven yrs. he ate grass, grew hair like eagles feathers and nails like birds claws. At the end of seven yrs. he repented and praised God.
- 605 B.C.
- Daniel - was taken to babylon in 605 B.C. Was a young man/teenager, probably 14-16 yrs. old when king Josiah died. (alive during Jeremiah's day). Had strong faith. God called him beloved. Nebuchadnezzar wanted Daniel and his friends to eat his food. They said no and asked to be given natural food. In 10 days they were stronger than the others. Daniel refused to pray to King Darius and was thrown into a lions den. God shut the lions mouths. Visions. Foretold of four empires represented with beasts: the Babylonians, Medes-Persians, Greeks, and Romans. Daniel interpreted the king's dreams which had the same meaning. Also prophesied - 70 weeks (490 yrs. in prophetic terms) until the rebuilding Jerusalem and the Messiah (rode a donkey) in Dan.9:24. Prophecy came true exactly 490 yrs. later. Book of Daniel written in Aramaic + Hebrew.
- 635 - 536 B.C.
- Lived in Greece during the Archaic period. told stories- fables which bought him his freedom from slavery. Some of Aesop's fables may have been written by others and passed down for generations. His fables had morals (like parables). King Croesus asked Aesop to go to Delphi to distribute some money to the people there. The people threw Aesop over a cliff because he thought they were not worthy of the money because they were dishonest. They supposedly had terrible plagues for killing an innocent man. (expression - "blood of Aesop")
- 600 B.C.
- Wrote the book of Ezekiel. Lived by the river Cebar, north of Babylon. Visions from God with fiery clouds, strange creatures with 4 faces/wings that moved like a wheel in the middle of a wheel, and a rainbow in a cloud on a rainy day. God had Ezekiel eat a scroll before prophesying to Jerusalem- was not yet completely taken by Babylon. Odd word pictures- hair shaved and scattered in different directions: the Israelites would be dispersed, wife died and Ezekiel grieved: God's grief for His people, prophesied and a valley of dry bones came back to life: Israel one day would be restored. Some think Ezekiel was killed by a Hebrew for the truths he spoke, but most believe the Hebrews turned back to following the one true God.
- 593-571 B.C.
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego
- Hebrew names - Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah. "el"-God "iah"-Jehovah. Abed-Nego-"servant of Nego" (Babylonian god). Daniel helped Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego to be over the affairs of the providence of Babylon. Wouldn't eat the king's food. Statue. Fiery furnace.
- 575 B.C.
Buddha (Siddhartha Guatama)
- Born in 560 B.C. in a place in India (now present-day Nepal). Father- Rajah/ruler. Disliked caste system. Left his life of comfort and wandered as a holy man for c.6yrs. searching for truth. Supposedly sat under a tree for 7 days determined not to get up until he found truth. changed his name to Buddha-"the enlightened one" because he felt enlightened through his thinking. Believed "nirvana"/being at peace was a mind set of what perfection was. His teaching was called the eightfold Path- 8 principles to help people reach nirvana: right opinion, intentions, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration. Meditation- didn't believe in gods, believed in reincarnation. Lived to be 80 yrs. old. did not claim to be a god, but after his death many believed he was. Many Buddhists live in India and China today- often seen in yellow robes and clean shaven heads. Buddhism blended with Hinduism in may cultures.
- c. 563 B.C.
Pythagoras and the temple of Diana
- Greeks built the temple of Diana/Artemis completely out of marble (except the roof). also built a monument to the goddess Diana- in the city of Ephesus in 550 B.C., took over 120 yrs. to build, had more than 100 columns standing 60' high, and is one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
- Pythagoras lived in Greece. known for his mathematical discoveries- Pythagorean theorem: famous idea about triangles c2=a2+b2. helped understand odd, even, and prime numbers. believed the world was round. his students later thought that the earth might revolve around the sun. Also a philosopher- taught that people were born over and over again as different beings. Some of his ideas influenced Plato. His school was eventually destroyed by people who became suspicious of him and his followers.
- 566 B.C.
- Chinese name: KungFu-tzu. born the youngest of 2 children in the state of Lu. lived during the second half of the Zhou dynasty when the government was in bad shape. part of a noble family- became poor when his father died. worked hard at his education. 21 yrs. old- thought of some ideas to make life better in China. became a sage/wiseman and taught his followers to be gentlemen- virtues of courtesy, good faith, diligence, and kindness ought to shape one's behavior. Put his notes into books called the 5 classics. Confucianism- religion/philosophy
- 551 B.C.
Belshazzar and Cyrus the Great
- Belshazzar - 2nd in the kingdom. made king because his father was more interested in Archeology. Wild party- used gold and silver goblets stolen from Solomon's temple to drink wine. a hand appeared and wrote "MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN" on the wall. Daniel interpreted "God has numbered your kingdom and finished it; you have been weighed in the balances and found wanting; your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and the Persians. (Media and Persia were countries just to the north and east of Babylonia where present day Iraq is)
- Cyrus the Great - Medo-Persian king who conquered Babylon. fulfilled the prophecy in Isaiah about setting the Jews free- while 42,360 Jews headed back to Palestine (Judah), others decided to stay in Babylonia.
- c.538 B.C.
- Esther's father in law. ruled over all the Medo-Persian Empire some time after Cyrus the Great. Official title- Shahanshah-"king of kings". The title "shah" was started by Darius I, and the last shah of Iran ruled until 1979. Darius had a stone carved with words about himself. thought he was appointed by the gods to be a ruler. organized his empire into 20 provinces-"saturies". might have started the 1st serious postal service. valued honesty and fairness. Behistun Rock- 10-by-18' rock. towered 500' above the ground. had words written in 3 different languages, and pictures.
- 521 B.C.
- King Jehoiachin's son. appointed governor of Judah by Cyrus the Great. built an offering to God. made it a priority to rebuild the temple as soon as the people were settled. Cyrus helped by giving back what was stolen from the temple. Darius I decreed that the Jews could use the kings money to rebuild the temple. when the foundation was laid they had a dedication ceremony. rebuilding the temple was hard. local people (some were Samaritans) were unfriendly- fought with returning Jews for yrs. until Darius decreed that the Jews could finish building the temple (anyone who got in their way would be hanged, and his house made a refuse heap). Zerubbabel lived long enough to see the completion of the temple.
- 520 B.C.
Haggai and Zechariah
- Haggai - prophet. The book of Haggai- the heart of God "From this day forward, I will bless you".
- Zechariah - prophet/priest. (name means Jehovah remembers) The book of Zechariah- 7 visions that reveal how much God loved His people. Zion is often used for the name of Jerusalem after the Jews returned there. near the end of the book, the last chapters talk about the coming of Jesus, and later, the kingdom.
- 520 B.C.
The Roman Republic
- 3 Etruscan kings ruled over the city of Rome. Last king was Tarquin the proud- cruel/driven off the throne. Roman kings- leader of army, highest judge, the priest, head of the nation, father of the state. The Romans decided to change the way things were in Rome- Roman Republic: type of government where people are allowed to vote. 2 consuls- (rulers) one could override the other, but they had to agree on big decisions. Senators- concul's advisers on how Rome ought to be managed, represented the people. Roman's class system years earlier- Patricians:(higher class) served as senators, Plebeians:(lower class) took 300 yrs. to gain equal respect- made Rome stronger, but they still had unfairness in slavery.
- 509 B.C.
The Battle of Marathon
- Darius I conquered Ionia, a neighboring country, on the east coast of Turkey. Greeks from Athens tried to help the Ionians fight Darius. Persians march over to Greece to fight them too. The armies fought on the plain of marathon, 25 miles from Athens. Even though Darius's army outnumbered the Greeks, the Greeks were aggressive and chased the Persians right back into their ships. Persians lost 6,000 men, Greeks lost 200. The Persians had a winning streak till then. It occurred to the Leader of the Greek camp that the Persians might act as if they had won and try to sack the city of the Athens itself. So he sent a messenger to Athens, Pheidippides - had already been running messages to Sparta and back. ran 25 miles to Athens. At Athens he said, "Rejoice, we conquer!" then fell down dead from exhaustion. In honor of his run, the term marathon came to mean a long foot race of 26 miles. The moon was waning (crescent shaped) the night Darius was defeated at marathon. To remember their victory, the Athenians added a crescent moon to the tetradrachma, a coin that was used throughout the area.
- 490 B.C.
- Born in Ionia. Traveled to Egypt, the Middle East, N. Africa. Eventually settled in S. Italy (Greek colony). Learned as he traveled about many different customs, manners, foods, and religions. Wrote history in a very enjoyable manner. Some things he wrote weren't true. Writings beneficial to scholars. He wrote 9 books just on the Persians and the Persian wars. Also wrote about the Persian's postal system: "Not snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor night keeps them from accomplishing their appointed course with all speed." Most historians only write about their own people, Herodotus wrote a lot about the Persians so his people would better understand them.
- c. 434 B.C.
- Son of Darius I who had lost the battle of Marathon. Grudge against Greeks. 10 yrs. after the battle- laid a bridge over a fleet of ships that were side by side. Took 7 days for his army to cross the floating bridge. Recruited many nations: c. 200,000 soldiers. First successful. Won many battles. Destroyed the Capitol city, Athens. Eventually he was forced to fight at sea at the Bay of Salamis. Greeks overtook Persians by backing them into a corner where they could not turn around easily. Xerxes supposedly saw his army being defeated on a hill. The Persian loss fulfilled Daniel's prophecy. Xerxes/Ahasuerus- married Esther.
- 480 B.C.
- Lived in the city of Susa in what had been Babylonia (now Persia ruled it), with her cousin Mordecai. Vashti banished. Esther and others groomed for months to be more beautiful to appear before the king- chose Esther to be his queen. Ahasuerus gave Haman permission to have all the Jews killed. With Mordecai's instructions Esther risked her life to go to the king and plead for the lives of her and the other Jews (she had kept her Jewish heritage a secret). 1st she invited Ahasuerus and Haman to a feast twice. At the 2nd feast she told the king that Haman was the one that was going to have them killed. Haman and his family were hanged on the gallows he had made for Mordecai and the other Jews. "Pur"- chance (in the Persian language) Ahasuerus had already sent out his men with the orders to kill the Jews on the 13th day of March (Haman chose the date of Pur). The king gave Esther authority to warn the Jews so they could protect themselves. The plan worked and the Jews were spared from destruction. Purim - festival celebrating the story of Esther.
- Unknown Date
The Golden Age of Athens
- Only lasted c.50yrs. Big wars with Persia over. Tension with Sparta- 30yr. peace treaty helped keep things calm. Entertainment- the theater:"Dionysia" men competed in forming tragedies, comedies, and "satyr plays": men would dress like part horse or part goat to make fun of serious things. plays only used 2 or 3 actors, wore really big masks. Art- discovered how to make real-looking, 3D dimensional statues: greater facial expressions, clothes appeared to flow with movement. Mathematicians. Philosophers. Doctors. Music. Poetry. Toys. Games. Sports. Public buildings- huge with beautiful columns- Doric: simple. Ionic and Corinthian: more ornate. Parthenon- 1 of the greatest of ancient Athen's buildings. huge. very ornate. towered over the city because it was built on top of the Acropolis. still stands today. contained no straight lines, only the illusion of them. built for worship of the goddess Athena. Lincoln Memorial is patterned after the Parthenon.
- 479-431 B.C.
- Greek philosopher-"lover of wisdom". Did not write down his teachings. Plato, and many of his other students wrote about him and his sayings. Tried to understand man's behavior. Believed men with knowledge and wisdom were "good", and men were "bad" if ignorant. "Know thyself". Challenged the people to see the difference between opinions and knowledge. Some leaders thought he was a threat to the idea of democracy. Arrested for his teachings. Defended himself but was found guilty/given a death sentence. Friends tried to help him escape but he preferred to submit to the law. Thought it would do good for Athens by dying. Socrates drank the cup of poison Hemlock without fear.
- c.469-399 B.C.
Hippocrates and the Statue of Zeus
- In Greece when someone was ill they thought it was a punishment from the gods. taken to the priests: did some practical things to help them feel better but then did sacrifices, ceremonies, and prayers, hoping for a miracle. Hippocrates didn't agree with this system. Believed that diet, exercise, and rest affected one's health. Approached medicine more scientifically than religiously. Searched for causes of sickness and gave prescriptions. Believed that surgery should only be used as a last resort. Believed doctors should be trustworthy- must be well trained to use his skills wisely. Hippocratic Oath- written some time after Hippocrates. reflected his beliefs. today the American Medical Association uses a similar form for doctors to follow. Statue of Zeus- built in Olympia by Phidias. stood 40' high. had jewels, gold and ivory. lasted 800 yrs. one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
- c. 460-377 B.C.
Ezra and Artaxerxes
- Ezra- priest and scribe. lived in Persia. heard that the people in Judah used the temple to worship, but their spiritual life was weak, so he went back to Jerusalem to teach the people about living right. was given permission from Artaxerxes I (king of Persia. nickname: Longimanus "long handed" had a deformity in his right hand. son of Xerxes I. may have been Esther's son.) to leave and was given pay for whatever he needed on the trip. Ezra 7:11-28 -Artaxerxes' letter of authorization also included that taxes should be lifted from the priests and that Ezra ought to teach the people about the law if they didn't know it already. During their 4-month journey of 900 mi. the Jews stopped to fast and pray for safety for 3 days. When they arrived many of the men had foreign wives so Ezra commanded that the men leave their wives and their children. Slowly the people turned back to the proper worship of God.
- 457 B.C.
- Served king Artaxerxes as a cup bearer. heard that Jerusalem was having trouble with it's neighbors. the walls and gates had been destroyed yrs. ago and the city was open to intruders. got permission from the king to leave for 12 yrs. to help rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. showed great leadership. layed bricks down with one hand and held weapons in the other. walls rebuilt within 52 days. when finished, they read the book of the law publicly, celebrated the feast of tabernacles, offered sacrifices, and rejoiced to God. Ezra hosted the ceremonies. even the woman and children rejoiced so that the joy of Jerusalem was heard afar off.
- 444 B.C.
- Lived during the golden age of Athens for 50 yrs. under direct democracy- "demos": people. "kratos": rule. Great speaker. as a politician, he was successful in giving the poor a right to serve in the government. also started the idea of paying salaries to people who worked in the government. Pericles was 1 of the 10 strategos who were elected as military commanders, but was so popular that he looked greater than that. gifted at creating strong patriotism among the Athenians. The strength and patriotism of Athens became a threat to Sparta and war broke out. when they were trapped inside the city a disease spread that killed many including Pericles.
- 443-429 B.C.
- Spartans- harsh. war-loving people. believed military strength was the only way to survive. Athenians- fond of arts and deep thinking. war was only good to them if it helped protect their democracy. had walls good to keep enemies out, but 1yr. after the war started they were trapped in with no food or water and a plague broke out that killed many of them. one of the Athenian leaders joined the Spartans. Athenians forced to surrender. Spartans had 30 men (later known as the 30 tyrants) to rule Athens for a while. They killed or drove away the democrats. Even though the Spartans won the Peloponnesian war, they never ruled Greece successfully.
- 431-403 B.C.
- Last of the O.T. prophets. God rebuked the Israelites for giving damaged animals as sacrifices and not trusting Him. He also mentioned how he hated divorce and how the men were treating their wives. God said he would send a messenger- John the baptist. Book of remembrance- list of those who loved God. Some think Elijah will return, others think it was John the baptist. 400yrs. of silence after Malachi.
- UNKNOWN DATE
Plato and Aristotle
- 3 philosophers- Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
- Plato- pupil of Socrates (real name is Aristocles, "broad shouldered"). established the 1st university- Greek for "place of learning", "Academy" (was in the grove of Academus). Thought that life, like music, should fit a pattern. interested in inner man. searched for the meaning of life. concluded that temperance, courage, and wisdom would make a man just.
- Aristotle- pupil of Plato. took the field of philosophy into the field of logic. studied natural sciences and wrote books on them. wrote about psychology. started the idea of analyzing literature and drama. was asked to privately tutor the king of Macedonia's son, Alexander the Great. started a school. students-"peripatetics", "to walk around". taught to walk and think out loud.
- 429-347 B.C. 384-322 B.C.
Philip II of Macedonia and the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
- Philip II- (horse lover). brother was king of Macedonia when Philip was a boy. Greeks looked down on the Macedonians because they were different. Thebians attacked. king was forced to give them his brother as a hostage. eventually was returned home. later became king. ruled 25yrs. expanded his kingdom: took almost all of Greece and the land as north as the Danube river. 1 of his eyes gouged out by an arrow. created Phalanex- group of soldiers lined in a marching rectangle 8 or 10 rows deep. the soldiers would overlap their round shields and hold extra long spears and swords straight out in front of them. While uniting Greece, Philip had no problem killing fellow Greeks. just married a new wife, was suddenly assassinated. some think the old queen or Alexander was behind the plot. Mausoleum of Halicarnassus- built in 353 B.C. by orders of queen Artemisia as a tomb for king Mausolus of Caria in Asia. so tall and beautiful that all tall tombs became known as "mausoleums". 1 of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
- 382-336 B.C.
Alexander the Great
- Loved Greek ideas. favorite story- carried a copy of the Iliad and chose the character Achilles as his role model. loved horses like his father. supposedly tamed a ferocious horse named Bucephalus, a city in India was named after it. when 20 he set out to conquer more land that had never been ruled by 1 person before. many believed he descended from a god. Greek legend- Gordius tied a knot so difficult to untie that whoever untied it would rule all of Asia. Alexander cut it with his sword and declared that he had fulfilled the prophecy. His kingdom included Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Persia, and part of India. capitol: Babylon. in Thebes where his father grew as a hostage, Alexander destroyed the city and took 30,000 prisoners. ruthless. named many places he conquered after himself. put Greek men in positions of leadership. promoted marrying of people from one country to the other (he married 2 foreign women). in a drunken fight he killed 1 of his closest friends. anyone who threatened his authority was put to death. said to have wept at the thought that there might not be any more lands to conquer. died from Malaria/others think it was from drinking. sent to Egypt in a gold coffin.
- 356-323 B.C.
The Split of Alexander's Empire
- Intertestamental period- (between the testaments) during this time the Israelites already knew that Alexander would rise and fall: prophesied by Daniel. Josephus- Jewish historian. said when Alexander arrived outside of Jerusalem planning to take over the city, some priests went to greet him. showed him the passages in Daniel that described him (Dan.11:2-3). so impressed by the passage that he departed peacefully, some wonder if he saw "the rest of the passage" (Dan. 11:4, 8:20-22) "His kingdom shall be uprooted" "4 kingdoms shall arise out of that nation but not with it's power"-Alexander died and 4 generals who would rule next agreed to break up the kingdom into 4 more manageable portions.
- 323 B.C.
Archimedes and the lighthouse of Alexandria
- Archimedes- Greek mathematician. inventor. lever and pulley: created devices that could raise and lower great ships in and out of water. had the idea of using large mirrors on a ship to reflect the sun's rays and burn down other ships. invented the Archimedes screw: giant screw that could move water out of a pond by turning it. calculated the meaning of "pi"(help determines the dimensions of circles). came close to inventing calculus. the king asked him to find out if the crown he had was made of pure gold- while thinking over the question he lowered himself into a tub and noticed the amount of water that splashed out. gave him the idea that the displacement of water for the weight of a gold crown would be different from the displacement of water from a crown of cheap metal. was so excited that he jumped out of the tub and ran naked to the king yelling "eureka", "I have found it". Yrs. later the Romans were attacking the city. Archimedes was killed because they thought the tools he was using were made out of gold.
- The lighthouse (Pharos) built on the small island Pharos at the harbor of Alexandria. 400' built by the Greek architect Sostratos somewhere between 283-246 B.C. a huge fire surrounded by mirrors blazed at the top to warn sailors of the land for miles. stood for 1,500 yrs. 1 of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
- c.287-212 B.C.
Emperor Asoka of India
- most famous of the Mauryan rulers. improved water supplies. created the 1st rest stops for travelers. had giant banyan trees planted along major roads to provide shelter. 1 tree can look like a small forest. had a horrible war experience, discovered the peaceful teachings of Buddah. changed major religion of India from Hinduism to Buddhism. sent missionaries to neighboring lands. built rock pillars (some still stand today) with edicts: instructions on how to live. 1 pillar states: no matter what their beliefs are, the people of India were like children to him. after his death the Mauryan empire broke up and most of India went back to practicing Hinduism.
- 273-232 B.C.
The Septuagint and the Colossus of Rhodes
- 4 generals (took over Alexander's empire). Ptolemy family ruled Egypt. Ptolemy II had a giant library. Greeks were friendly with Jews- some chose to stay in Egypt and began to speak Greek instead of Hebrew. Ptolemy II agreed to write the "Septuagint"-70, (took c. 70days to write the 1st 5 books) OT written in Greek, for those who could no longer read Hebrew. The Colossus at Rhodes- 105' bronze statue of Helios, Greek sun god. built by a Greek sculpter named chares, on a small island named Rhodes in the Aegean sea, right at a harbor entrance. last of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
- 250 B.C.
The Qin Dynasty (ch'in)
- War between the states of China until Qin (chin: where the name china came from) used his power to unite the feuding states into 1 government. so powerful that he named himself "Shi Huang Ti", "1st emperor of China" had canals, chariots (certain sizes), wagons, and palaces built. created 1 type of money for all the Chinese, and a standard system of weights and measures. high taxes. very cruel to those who's beliefs threatened him. executed more than 400 scholars- many believed in Confucius's teachings. Burned thousands of history books so "history" would start with him. had soldiers, prisoners and peasants work on the great wall of china to keep enemies from attacking- supposedly many died for working yrs in extreme weather conditions or were executed for leaving a crack in the wall. raiders from Mongolia managed to cross over the wall anyway. 1974- diggers discovered the tomb of Shi Huang Ti. 7,500 life-sized clay soldiers (may have used these instead of sacrificing real people), replicas of horses (some life-sized), chariots and weapons.
- 221-206 B.C.
Hannibal, Elephants, and the Punic Wars
- Romans fought over Sicily with the Phoenicians- (punic) settled in the city of Carthage. lost the 1st Punic war. Hannibal- rose to power in Carthage. hated the Romans. tried attacking from the north- climbed the Alps with 37 war elephants. only 1 survived the trip. some of his men also died. Romans defeated at 3 different battles in Italy. Scipio- Roman general. led his men to attack Carthage. forced Hannibal to return and fight against him at the battle of Zama. Hannibal lost the 2nd Punic war. began working on re-building the city but the Romans thought him to be a threat in doing that so they hunted him down. rather than suffer from being captured, he supposedly killed himself by drinking the secret poison that he stored in his ring. Scipio died that same year. 3rd Punic war- Romans completely destroyed the city of Carthage. took the survivors as prisoners. wasted the burned city with salt so it would no longer grow crops.
- 218-146 B.C.
The Han Dynasty
- Lasted over 400yrs. Emperor Wu Ti- conquered more land. Chinese didn't need anything from the western world except horses. Silk road- group of trade routes that went from China to Syria (2,500 mi.) Rome thought silk to be equal to gold. Many of China's villages were connected by long canals or waterways. some families lived on houseboats. art became more beautiful- made fine china. invented paper, and the seismograph device that helps determine earthquakes. writings of Confucius brought back into the politics of the country, but they didn't follow the idea that they had to pass a test to serve in government. still followed the idea of being born into a position of leadership.
The Maccabean Revolt
- Antiochus IV- 8th ruler of the Seleucid dynasty. (1 of the 4 rulers who ruled part of Alexander's empire) Hellenization- had no respect for the Jew's beliefs. wanted them to adopt the Greek way of life. Put up a statue of Zeus and sacrificed a pig on the alter in the Jewish temple, when he took over, to mock them. forbade circumcision. destroyed all copies of the OT that he could find. Mattathias- led a rebellion against Antiochus. After his death, his son Judas Maccabee (hammerer) continued fighting against Antiochus- Maccabean Revolt. Although he had fewer men, God helped Judas win victory after victory. finally regained control of the temple. The Apocrypha books (special writings not included in the bible) say that 1 small bottle of oil was enough to keep the lamps burning for 8 days: enough time to complete their time of worship and dedication of the temple. Hanukkah-"dedication" celebrates the miracle of the oil lasting 8 days. Judas died in battle shortly after but his brothers continued the fight for the Jews independence.
- 167-143 B.C.
- A slave from Thrace. once had been free. escaped and freed 90,000 slaves. Servile War- he led the slaves against Crassus and a Roman army. Spartacus was killed and the 6,000 slaves that survived were crucified. the other slaves never tried to rebel again.
- Unknown-71 B.C.
The first Triumvirate
- The Roman Empire-"the 1st Triumvirate", rule by 3 persons or parties. Marcus Licinius Crassus- a consul (president voted to rule 1yr with another consul) and a censor (examines public materials). stopped the slaves rebellion. Pompey the great- a consul. fought the pirates in the Mediterranean sea. Julius Caesar- through bribes and violence he was able to rule with Crassus and Pompey. married Caesar's daughter. Caesar was very popular. served as a military general. cruel. hungry for land and power.
- 60 B.C.
- When Caesar was returning from war, and was near the Rubicon stream, the Roman senate began to fear Caesar, so they told him he could only return to rule Rome without his army as a private citizen, not as a general or ruler. Caesar "crossing the Rubicon" (making a strong decision that can't be reversed) declared war against Rome. Crassus and Pompey's wife (Caesar's daughter) were dead. Pompey fled to Egypt where he was murdered. Caesar became ruler. renamed the month quintiles, July, after himself (Julius). tried replacing dishonest politicians with respectable ones. established a system for the poor to receive free grain. great speaker/writer. fell in love with Cleopatra of Egypt.
- 100?-44 B.C.
The second Triumvirate
- Ides of March- Julius Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators, some his closest friends. Many of the Romans didn't like how he acted like a king. he treated senators like advisors instead of decision makers. 2nd Triumvirate- Gaius Octavian. Caesar's great nephew and adopted son. killed the 2 men that were behind Caesar's assassination plot. tried to restore order to Rome with the help of the other 2 men. Mark Antony- did not always agree/get along with Octavian. married Octavian's sister. Marcus Lepidus- retired early from his position leaving the other 2 to fight over their differences. They decided to divide the Roman republic. Octavian took the western portion, and Mark Atony took the east.
- 44 B.C.
- Lived in Alexandria, Egypt. her father 1 of the last rulers in the line Ptolemy. She spoke many languages. married 2 of her brothers to become queen. when they died, and Egypt was tired of having the Greeks rule them, her father called to Rome for help. she found an opportunity to deliver herself in a rolled up carpet to meet Julius Caesar- helped secure her throne/fell in love with her. they had a son. Caesar assassinated- she married Mark Atony, and they had 3 children.
- 69-30 B.C.
Herod the Great
- Romans conquered Judah/Palestine. unwelcome. cruel. harsh leadership. Herod the Great- mother an Arabian princess. father from Judea. well educated in the Greek style. governor. with permission took over all of Palestine:"king of the Jews". ruled 34yrs. married a Hasmonian princess to be at peace with the family that he overthrew. later had his wife, her children, her brother, and her mother killed because he didn't trust them. to find favor with the Jews, had the temple remodeled to be greater than Solomon's. even the high priests were trained to build so they could work on the holy of holies. had many other buildings made. Caesarea. found a way to pour concrete underwater. "Massacre of the Innocents". Masada- rock fortress in the desert. retreated to this isolated place. Died from strange diseases. Wailing Wall/Western Wall- what's left of the temple still stands today.
- 37 B.C.
The Battle of Actium
- Antony living in Egypt. married Cleopatra. rejecting his 1st wife, Octavian's sister. Octavian said that in marrying an Egyptian (who he said was against them and trying to become queen over Rome), Atony had betrayed the Romans. declared war on Mark Atony- Battle of Actium (fought at sea). started overtaking Atony's ships- Cleopatra fled. Atony left his men fighting to go after her. one point he thought she was dead and tried to kill himself. was taken to Cleopatra, died in her arms. Cleopatra and her attendants allowed a snake to poison them in her tomb.
- 31 B.C.
Augustus Caesar and the Roman Empire
- Julius Caesar wrote in his will that Octavian, his great nephew, would be his heir. Mark Atony and Lepidus gone- Octavian found himself the lone ruler over all of Rome. made friends with senators. became a dictator, the Romans accepted it. had the power to veto laws, declare war without the senate's approval, put men in office, rule armies, and be a high priest of their religion. declined being called a dictator or king. called emperor. 1st true emperor of Rome. Augustus- "exalted one". Caesar- after Julius Caesar. ruled more than 40yrs. Roman empire- spread over most of Europe. "Fax Romania"- peace of Rome. lasted 200 yrs. Augustus built many buildings and set natural land divisions that were easy to guard. Luke 2:1-7 Caesar Augustus made a decree that all the world should be registered.
- 27 B.C.
John the Baptist
- Father- Zacharias. mother- Elizabeth. born when they were old. Lived in the wilderness preaching and baptizing. "prepare the way of the Lord. make his paths straight." camel hair. locusts. wild honey. baptized Jesus in the Jordan river. Herod Antipas- son of Herod the great. threw John into prison for preaching against him and his relationship with his brother's wife, Herodias- schemed a way for John to be executed. had his head served on a platter.
- c. 4 B.C.-A.D. 26
Jesus Christ, His Birth
- Gabriel the angel told Mary that she would have a son- Jesus, God's son. Joseph- engaged to Mary. traveled back to Bethlehem (city of David) with her because of Caesar Augustus's decree for a census to be taken. There was no room at the inns so they settled in a manger where Jesus was born. Angels praised God.
- c. 4 B.C.
Jesus, His Teachings and Miracles
- Carpenter. ministry- taught about the kingdom, repentance, loving your enemies, how to pray, how to fast, faith, forgiveness, servant hood, the blessing of children, marriage, witnessing, managing money, persecutions, and the future. Parables. NT records c. 36 miracles that Jesus did.
- c. A.D. 26-29
Tiberius Caesar, Pilate, and Herod
- Tiberius Caesar- emperor after Augustus. didn't handle money well. "Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar's". placed governors, "prosecutors" in power of different places: Pontius Pilate- Judea/Palestine. Herod Antipus- Galilee. Legal system- had courts set up. Jesus sent to both Pilate and Herod. they thought he was innocent/did not want to put him to death. Pilate's wife- had bad dreams about the incident and warned him to have nothing to do with Jesus's death. Pilate eventually gave in to the crowd and had Jesus crucified. washed his hands before the multitude and said "I am innocent of the blood of this just person. You see to it."
- 42 B.C.-A.D. 37
- Unknown-A.D. 36
- Unknown-A.D. 40
The Twelve Disciples of Christ
- Disciple- follows the teachings of another person. Jesus chose 12 disciples (sometimes called apostles) to follow him: Simon Peter, (denied Jesus 3 times) James and John, (brothers. sons of thunder. disciple Jesus loved. saw visions recorded in revelation.) fishermen. Closest to Jesus. Matthew, (tax collector) Judas Iscariot, (betrayed Jesus) Philip, (may have been a disciple of John the Baptist. lived near the region where John preached. brought people to Jesus.) Thomas, (doubted that Jesus rose from the dead) James, (Peter's brother. fisherman.) Simon, Bartholomew, James, (son of ) and Lebbaeus (Thaddeus. One of the gospels use the name Jude instead.). They will sit on 12 thrones judging the 12 tribes of Israel.
- Unknown Date
Jesus, his Death, and Resurrection
- Jewish leaders thought Jesus was a threat to them and considered it blasphemy to call himself the son of God. Passover- bread and wine. The Sanhedrin found him guilty but did not have the power to sentence him, so Jesus was sent to Pilate- didn't think he was guilty but in the end Jesus was given a death penalty: crucifixion. Golgotha- place of the skull. Asked God to forgive them. told 1 of the thieves next to him that he would be with him in paradise. told John to take care of Mary. Lamb of God. died when the Jews gave their sacrifices. The resurrection. He was the perfect sacrifice for our sins.
- c. A.D. 29
Jesus, the Mystery of History
- Was raised 3 days later and 1st appeared to Mary. When the women told the disciples that the tomb was empty, they didn't believe them until Jesus appeared to them too. Later on, as they watched him ascend up to heaven the angels by them said that he would return the way they saw him leave. The disciples then went on to preach the goodness of Christ's death and resurrection, God's forgiveness, and the hope of Christ return to set up his kingdom.
- Yesterday, Today, and Forever