1. basic process of creating memories
    encoding, storage, and retrieval
  2. encoding
    a code that memory system uses

    acoustic, visual, semantic codes
  3. acoustic codes
    represents info in sequence of sounds

    ex pen rhymes with hen
  4. visual codes
    stimuli in picture form

    ex pen - long object with point
  5. semantic code
    represents experience with general meaning

    ex: pen - writing instrument hat uses ink
  6. storage
    maintenance of info over time
  7. retrieval
    finding info and bringing it to awarenes
  8. explicit memory
    • fades in time
    • episodic and semantic
  9. semantic
    memory generalized knowledge

    ex:owls are nocturnal
  10. episodic memory
    memory of specific event you were at

    ex: memory of a vacation
  11. implicit (non declarative)
    • doesn't fade
    • don't purposely try to remember
    • unconscious and unintentional
  12. procedural memory
    don't have to consciously recall how to perform tasks

    ex: tying shoe
  13. endel tulving
    • wanted to measure implicit and explicit memory
    • they are  different and separate
    • had people study words
  14. Many activities require
    multiple types of memories
  15. maintenance rehearsal
    • repeating info over again without thinking about it
    • not effective
  16. elaborative rehearsal
    • thinking about how new stuff relates to old stuff
    • requires thinking about semantic codes
  17. transfer appropriate processing
    memory retrieval works better when it occurs similarily to how it was encoded

    ex; study for an essay by writing essays
  18. parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
    experiences don't affect knowledge they just cause general/diverse changes
  19. info-processing model (Atkinson-shiffrin)
    • for memory to be permanently embedded
    • 1. sensory memory (ICONIC AND ECHOIC/ VISUAL AND AUDITORY)
    • 2. short term memory
    • 3. long term memory
  20. sensory memory
    • info from senses
    • held in less then 1 sec
  21. iconic memory
    less than 1 sec
  22. Echoic mem
    4 sec
  23. in short term memory for
    18 - 20 sec
  24. how long is long term memory
  25. memory is
    a) something you do
    b) something that happens to you
    • a) something you do
    • it is an active memory process
  26. selective attention
    • focusing on only part of stimulus
    • lasts for 1 sec
  27. short term memory ( working memory
    info that reaches her is consciously thought about
  28. STM that uses _____ & ____ works better than ____ codes to embed info to memory
    STM that uses encoding & acoustic codes works better than visual codes codes to embed info to memory
  29. immediate memory span
    max # of items you can perfectly recall after one presentation

    limit is ( 5 to 9 ) items
  30. how to improve STM
    group info into chunks ( it organizes info  using what we already know in the LTM)
  31. Dual coding theory
    LTM is more effective if info is encoded with both visual and semantic code at the same time
  32. capacity of LTM
  33. primacy effect
    • LTM
    • recall items from beginning of list
  34. recency effect
    • STM
    • recall from end of list
  35. anterograde amnesia
    • memory loss for events after injury
    • damage to hippocampus
  36. retrograde
    mem loss to events prior to injury
  37. stimuli cues
    help retrieve info from LTM
  38. encoding specificity principle
    • retrieval cues work best when they tap into basic meaning of stored info
    • bc LTM uses semantic codes (codes with meaning)
  39. context and state dependence memory
    environmental features act as retrieval cues (people remember more when they go to same place where they learned the info)

    psychological state also is encoded during learnign
  40. mood congruency affect
  41. recall experiences that are consistent with your mood
  42. semantic memory network
    stores general knowledge about world
  43. spreading activation ( connectionalism)
    • thinking of concept activates corresponding network
    • gives accsess to large amounts of info related to a concept
  44. incomplete knowledge
    • remembering a feature of concept but unablt to retrieve others
    • tip of the tongue phenomenon
    • feeling of knowing phenomenon
  45. constructive memories
    people use existing knowledge to organize new facts, filling in gaps
  46. PDP ( parallel distributing process) produce
    • stereotypes
    • inappropriate associations
  47. schemas (mental construct/ representations)
    ideas and preconceptions about things (people, objects, events) based on past experiences
  48. scripts
    • schema
    • knowledge of how event unfolds
  49. person schema
    • beliefs/ideas about people you know
    • past experiences
  50. self schema
    represents knowledge and beliefs about own traits/ ablilities
  51. recognition
    immediate identification of something familiar
  52. recall
    • retrieve from LTM with out an info or cues
    • got to think about it
  53. repressed memories
    • repress memories due to something traumatic
    • may be recalled at specific times if they finally encounter correct retrieval cues
    • implicit (cant forget)

    different from suppress which is a memory you try to avoid
  54. motivated forgetting
    people more likely to forget unpleasant events
  55. false memories
    • (constructive memory)
    • people recall events that didn't occur
  56. flashbulb memory
    • explicit(episodic)
    • vivid memory of emotionally significant moment or event
  57. ebbinghaus
    • created nonsense syllables that eliminated associations betwwen previous material
    • forgetting curve
  58. method of savings
    • ebbinghaus
    • difference between the number of repetitions needed to learn list and number of repetitions needed to relearn it
    • the difference between them is called the savings
  59. ebbinghaus found
    • savings declined as time passes
    • (explicit memory fades)
    • savings in LTM is very long
    • most forgetting happens in first 9 hours
  60. decay
    unused memory fades over time
  61. interference
    causes forgetting when on piece of info impairs the encoding or retrieval of another piece of info
  62. displacement
    one info pushes the other out of memory storage
  63. proactive interference
    • old learning interferes with remembering new learning
    • (hard to learn new stuff)
  64. retoactive
    • new learning interferes with retrieval of old learning
    • (hard to recall new stuff)
  65. acetylcholine
    important in meoery
  66. glutamate
    hippocampus memory dependent shanges occur in synapse
  67. form new memories
    directed by hippocampus and thalamus
  68. hippocampus damage affect on memory
    hippocampus damage doesn't impair formation of new procedural memories or retrieval of already stored memories, these functions must rely on brain regions other then the hippocampus
  69. how to memorize materials you are studying
    focus your attention on the materials
  70. what to avoid when trying to memorizw
    • avoid cramming
    • distributed practice is better than massed practice
  71. what to do with info you are studying
    • structure and organize the info
    • creat outline
  72. what to use to help remember stuff
    • mnemonic devices
    • make info meaningful
  73. what to do when memorizing
    elaborate and rehearse
  74. what to relate info you are trying to remember things too
    relate to things you already know
  75. how to imrove memory and recall
    improve memory
  76. method of loci
    you remember things better in places that you are familiar with, link something with a place you know very well
  77. how to significantly improve memory
    teach it to someone else
  78. how to memorize difficult information
    pay extra attention to it
  79. working with textbooks
    • SQ3R
    • survey,question,read,recite,review
  80. dif mem strategies
    • focus
    • avoid cram
    • organize info
    • mnemonic devices
    • reherse
    • relate info
    • visualize concept
    • method of loci
    • teach it to others
Card Set
lesson 61-67