1. Anagesics
    include medications that relieve pain
  2. Benzodiazepines
    are sedatives used to prepare patients for an invasive surgery.
  3. Barbiturates
    they work almost like benzodiazepines by increaseing the affinity between receptor site and neeurotransmitter GABA
  4. NONbarbituate hypnotics
    non barbiturate hypnotics tend to have fewer side effects. mostly in cardiovascular compromise. but almost identical to barbiturates and benzodiazepines.
  5. potassium channel blockers
    medications that increase the contractility of the heart and work against the reentry of of blocked impulses.
  6. potentiation
    enhancement of action of a drug by administration of another drug
  7. serum sickness
    a condition in which antigen antibody complexes formed in the bloodstream deposit in places throughout the body, creates an inflammatory response.
  8. refractory
    describes a disease or condition that does not respond to treatment.
  9. sodium channel blockers
    antiarrythmitic medications that slow conduction through the heart.
  10. summation effect
    is what happens when two drugs that have similar action are given together
  11. suspension
    a mixture of ground particles. that are mixed evenly but do not dissolve into each other.
  12. synergisim
    the combined effects of two drugs that is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
  13. termination of action
    the amount of time after the concentration is a medication falls below the minimum effective levels until its eliminated from the body
  14. therapeutic index
    the difference between the minimum effective concentration and the concentration of the drug.
  15. therapeutic threshold
    the minimal concentration level to get your desired effect.
  16. transcutanous
    thru the skin.
  17. unintended effect/ untoward effect
    unintended- actions that undesirable but pose little risk to the patient

    untoward- pose a risk to the patient.
  18. xanthine's
    medications that have a effect on the respiratory smooth muscle and relax bronchiole smooth muscle.
  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    medications with analgesic and fever reducing properties.
  20. Half life
    the time required by the body to metabolize or inactivate half the amount taken in.
  21. iatrogenic response
    an adverse condition induced by a patient by the treatment given.
  22. idiosyncrasy
    an abnormal sensitivity or reaction to a drug or other substance that is particular to an individual
  23. immunosuppressant drugs
    medications intended to inhibit the body's ability to attack the foreign organ.
  24. interference
    a direct biochemical interaction between two drugs.
  25. Non-opioid analgesics
    medications designed to relive pain without the side effects of opiods
  26. Enteral drugs
    administered anywhere along the GI tract.
  27. parenteral
    any route that is not the GI tract
  28. Chronotropic and dermopropic and inotropic
    Chronotropic- changes the heart rate

    dromotropic- affects the conduction speeds of the av node. almost all dromotropic drugs are inotropic and chronotropic

    inotropic-negative weakens the heart contractions, and positive strengthens the contractions
  29. sniffing position
    upright, head and chin tilted forward to keep the airway open
  30. sepsis
    the spread of an infection from its initial site into the blood stream
  31. Golden period
    the time from injury to definitive care during which treatment of shock and traumatic injuries should occur because survival potential is best.
    • deformaties
    • contustions
    • abrarions
    • penetrations
    • burns
    • tenerness
    • lacerations
    • swelling
  33. systolic and diastolic pressure
    systolic-the increased pressure in an artery with each contraction of the ventricles

    diastolic-the pressure that remains in the arteries during the relaxation phase of the hearts cycle.
  34. Capnography
    a non invasive method that can quickly efficiently provide information on a patients ventilator status.
  35. ascities
    the accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
  36. rebound tenderness
    when pain is felt when pressure is released. opposed to when when being pressed.
  37. systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
    resistance to blood flow in all of the blood vessels except the pulmonary vessels
  38. Mean arterial pressure

    Map= CO X SVR
    generally the patients blood pressure required to sustain organ function. (which cant fall below 60 mm hg.

    ischemia will occur from lack of perfusion.
  39. Myocardial contractility.
    after load
    • mycardial contratility- the ability for the heart to contract
    • preload- is the precontraction pressure
    • afterload- is what the heart has to pump against.
  40. cardiac output

    CO=hr X sv
    the volume of blood the heart can pump in one minuete
  41. perfusion triangle
    The heart (pump)

    blood vessels and arteries (pipes)

    Blood (fluid)
  42. fibrinogen
    reinforces the red blood cells and the platelets as they clot. however its platelets main job to clot
  43. baroreceptors
    located in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses as well as the big arteries in the neck and thorax
  44. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)
    failure of several organs such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys and other clotting mechanisms.
  45. usually caused by septic shock.
  46. Cardiogenic shock
    inadequate function of the heart, or pump failure.
  47. pulmonary edema
    blood backing up into the heart and builds into the pulmonary tissue.
  48. obstructive shock
    when conditions cause a mechanical obstruction
  49. Partial immunity
    when you are protected against new infections but not from germs that remain in the body
  50. cerebrospinal fluid is made in ...
    the ventricles of the brain
  51. the thyroid gland is responsible for the....
    metabolic rate.
  52. the bodys ability to stop bleeding by forming a clot is called
  53. the primary waste of metabolism is
    Carbon dioxide.
  54. normal inspiration is the result of
    negative pressure in the cavity.
  55. middle muscle layer of the heart is called
  56. motor nerves
    carry commands from the CNS to the muscles.
  57. An area where we metabolize various drugs and and filters the blood
    The hepatic portal system
  58. the pneumotaxic center is located in the
    PONS..it inhibits the dorsal respiratory group and increases the speed and depth of breathing.
  59. if shock and JVD is present then that means ...
    the decreased after load, will affect cardiac output.
  60. chyene stokes respirations have
    Tachypnea and bradypnea and alternating apneic periods.
  61. hering breur reflex
    prevents over expansion of the lungs.
  62. emphysema is caused by
    surfactant destruction and increased alveolar surface tension
  63. PEA exists when..
    patient is in cardiac arrest and they still have an organized rhythm.
  64. what are the basic units for the metric system
    • Merter
    • liter
    • gram
  65. convert pounds to kilograms
    Divide the patients weight by 2 and subtract 10% of that.
  66. Ampules, vials
    ampules are breakable sterile glass of single dose of stuff.

    vials may have one or two doses. they also have the rubber stopper on the other end
  67. what are crystalloid solutions
    dissolved crystals in water. Best choice for patients needing fluid replacement.
  68. what are colloid solutions
    have molecules that are too large to pass out of the capillary membrane. main ones are albumin and corticosteroids.
  69. what are isotonic solutions
    has nearly the same osmolarity as the other body fluids.
  70. what are hypotonic solutions
    have a lower concentration of sodium than the cell. they pull fluid from the vascular compartment into the interstitial fluid compartment.
  71. what are hypertonic solutions
    have a higher osmolarity than serum and fluid shifts to the intravascular compartment
  72. infiltration
    when fluid escapes into the surrounding tissue.

    if u fuck it up go more proximal on the same arm or opposite extremity.
  73. if you administer a drug and there is an allergic reaction...
    notify medical control, discontinue the medication and remove the solution.
  74. what is lactated ringers solution
    a sterile crystalloid of specific amounts of calcium chloride,potassium chloride, sodium lactate in water.
  75. mucosal atomizer device
    goes on the end of a syringe for intranasal stuff
  76. what is third spaceing
    shifting of fluids into the tissues
  77. vasovagal reaction
    distress, anxiety,nausea
  78. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
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