Exam 2 Flashcards - Set 12

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  1. Why can't bacteria grow in solutions with very high concentrations of sugar?
    A) Sugar raises the solution's osmolarity.
    B) Sugar lowers the solution's pH.
    C) Bacteria cannot digest pure sugar.
    D) Sugar raises the solution's pH.
    E) Sugar lowers the solution's osmolarity.
    A) Sugar raises the solution's osmolarity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. You find that a microorganism has optimum growth at pH 9 and a temperature of 15°C, this organism is a(n):
    A) alkalophilic mesophile
    B) acidophilic thermophile
    C) alkalophilic psychrophile
    D) neutrophilic mesophile
    E) neutrophilic psychrophile
    g) acidophilic mesophile
    C) alkalophilic psychrophile
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following is/are true?
    a) peripheral membrane proteins span through the membrane
    b) integral membrane proteins sits on the surface of the membrane
    c) the membrane is a very rigid monolayer structure that encapsulates the cell
    d) LPS is found in Gram- inner and outer membranes
    e) non of the above are correct
    e) non of the above are correct
  4. True/False: Microbial genomes consist of one (usually) or more DNA chromosomes.
    True
  5. Names the purines.
    adenine (A) and guanine (G)
  6. Name the pyrimidines.
    Cytosine (C) and thymine (T)
  7. Name the three parts that each nucleotide consists of.
    • 1. Nitrogenous base
    • 2. Deoxyribose sugar
    • 3. Phosphate
  8. Nucleotides are connected to each other by _____ _________ _____.
    5'-3' phosphodiester bonds
  9. Hydrogen bonding allows complementary base interactions.
    - A pairs with ___ (via ____ H bonds)
    - G pairs with ___ (via ____ H bonds)
    • - T, two
    • - C, three
  10. At high temperatures (___-___ °C), the hydrogen bonds in DNA break and the duplex falls apart, or _______, into two single strands
    50-90, denatures
  11. RNA differs from DNA:
    - Usually ____ stranded
    - Contains _______ sugar
    - ______ replaces thymine
    • - single
    • - ribose
    • - uracil
  12. ______ is a horizontal gene transfer mechanism requiring cell-to-cell contact, which could transfer large segments of some bacterial chromosomes.
    conjugation
  13. Bacterial and archaeal chromosomes range in size from ____ to ______ kilobase pairs (kb).
    490 to 9,400
  14. Eukaryotic chromosomes range from _____ (Microsporidia) to over _____ million kb (flowering plants). The human genome is over __ million kb.
    2,900, 100, 3
  15. Eukaryotic genomes typically contain more than ____% noncoding DNA, while prokaryotic genomes typically contain less than ____%.
    90, 15
  16. Name the type of gene transfer:
    - from parent to child
    Vertical transmission
  17. Name the type of gene transfer:
    - transfer of small piece of DNA from one cell to another
    Horizontal transmission
  18. A ______ ____ produces a functional RNA, which usually encodes a protein.
    structural gene
  19. A ____ _____ _____ regulates the expression of a structural gene.
    DNA control sequence
  20. A gene can operate independently of others, or it may exist in tandem with other genes in a unit called an _____.
    operon
  21. ______ is a group of genes/operons; usually in one pathway and regulted by a common regulator.
    Regulon
  22. Bacteria pack their DNA into a series of loops of domains, collectively called the _____.
    - loops are anchored by histone-like proteins
    nucleoid
  23. Name the type of supercoil:
    - DNA is overwound
    Positive supercoils
  24. Name the type of supercoil:
    - DNA is underwound
    negative supercoils
  25. Eukarytoes, bacteria, and most archaea possess _______ supercoiled DNA.
    negatively
  26. Archaea living in acid at high temperatures possess _____ supercoiled DNA.
    positively
  27. Enzymes that change DNA supercoiling are called ______.
    topoisomerases.
  28. Name the type of topoisomerase:
    - usually single proteins
    - cleave one strand of DNA
    - releases supercoil
    Type I topoisomerase
  29. Name the type of topoisomerase:
    - Have multiple subunits
    - Cleave both strands of DNA
    - introduces supercoil
    - requires energy
    - Example: DNA gyrase
    Type II topoisomerase
  30. Name the type of topoisomerase:
    Image Upload 1
    Type I topoisomerase
  31. Name the type of topoisomerase:
    Image Upload 2
    Type II topoisomerase
  32. Since their chromosomes are linear, eukaryotes require a reverse transcriptase called ______ to replicate their ends
    telomerase
  33. Eukaryotic cells pack their DNA within the nucleus using proteins called ______.
    histones
  34. A large portion of eukarytoic chromosomes are composed of noncoding DNA, including ____ and ______.
    introns, pseudogenes
  35. True/false: archaeal genomes combine features of bacteria and eukaryotes.
    True
  36. Like bacteria, archaea have:
    - _____ operons
    - _____ reproduction
    - Cells _____ a nuclear membrane
    - A single _____ chromosome
    • - polygenic
    • - asexual
    • - lacking
    • - circular
  37. In most species of archaea, the process of DNA replication, transcription, and translation more closely resemble those of:
    A) bacteria
    B) eukaryotes
    C) neither
    B) eukaryotes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Two kinsd of extragenomic DNA molecules can interact with bacterial genomes:
    - _____ transferred plasmids
    - genomes of _______ (viruses that infect bacterial cells)
    • - Horizontally
    • - bacteriophages
  39. Name the type of plasmid replication:
    - starts at a single origin and occurs in two directions simultaneously
    Bidirectional replication
  40. Name the type of plasmid replication:
    - Starts at a single origin and moves in only one direction
    Rolling-circle replication
  41. Name the type of plasmid replication:
    Image Upload 3
    Rolling-circle replication
  42. Plasmids have tricks to ensure their inheritance:
    - Low-copy-number plasmids segregate ____ to daughter cells
    - High-copy-number plasmids segregate ____ to daughter cells
    • - equally
    • - randomly
  43. The bacterial chromosome is packed in a series of protein-bound loops collectively called the _____.
    nucleoid
  44. Topoisomerases are enzymes that ____ DNA.
    supercoil
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316899
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Exam 2 Flashcards - Set 12
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Genomes and Plasmids
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