Kin 151 Exam 1 Study Guide

  1. what is a sarcomere
    a single contractile unit, fundamental unit on striated muscle structure
  2. what are the 5 types of fiber architecture?
    • -longitudinal/parallel 
    • -fusiform/spindle
    • -fan/radiate
    • -pennate
    • -quadrate
  3. fiber architecture

    what do they look like? 
    Does it favor creating force vs creating a large range of motion with endurance? 
    use example.
    • -their fiber pattern is parallel to the longitudinal axis of their muscle 
    • -dominance is in creating endurance and large range of motion (long, flat, parallel) 
    • -ex. sartorius, gracilis, rectus abdominis, etc
  4. fiber architecture

    what do they look like? 
    does it favor creating force or creating a large range of motion with endurance? 
    • - strong, single point power. it goes from a narrow attachment to a broad attachment 
    • -varies between force and range of motion 
    • -lateral/medial deltoid, pectoralis major, SITS, latissimus dorsi, etc
  5. fiber architecture

    what do they look like? 
    does it favor creating force or creating a large range of motion with endurance? 
    • - rounded belly with longer, tapered end fibers
    • -vary between force and range of motion 
    • - biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis
  6. fiber architecture

    what do they look like? 
    does it favor creating force or creating a large range of motion with endurance? 
    • - short, parallel, featherlike fibers that lay at a diagonal or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 
    • -different types: uni, bi, multi, and quad 
    • - many short fibers=force oriented 
    • - examples
    • -uni: extensor digitorum longus
    • -bi: rectus femoris 
    • multi: whole deltoid (technically anything that is also bi)
  7. fiber architecture

    what do they look like? 
    does it favor creating force or creating a large range of motion with endurance? 
    • -4 sided, short, parallel muscle fibers 
    • -force oriented 
    • -ex. pronator quadratus, rhomboids, supinator, gluteus maximus
  8. What is a motor unit
    • Nerve and all the muscle fiber cells it innervates. (Floyd, 55)
    • A motor unit consists of a single motor neuron. (HWL, 71)
  9. What is motor unit recruitment?
    its the measure of how many motor units are activated in the muscle
  10. What effects the gradation of a muscle contraction?
    • major gradation
    • 1)type 1: the number of motor units that are being recruited 
    • 2)type 2: The frequency of stimulation. If the stimulus is released at lower frequencies the muscle fibers have enough time to relax a little before the next impulse. But if the stimuli are released at high frequencies then the muscle fibers don’t have enough time to relax and eventually reach summation or maximal contraction.
  11. 5 muscle contraction types
    • concentric- sarcomere shortens 
    • eccentric- sarcomere lengthens 
    • isometric- sarcomere stays at a length but there is tension 
    • isotonic- constant rate of tension during full range of motion (concentric and eccentric), but the length and amount of energy needed change
    • isokinetic-the muscle will shorten and lengthen, and tension will change, but the energy will remain the same
  12. What are the roles that muscles can play (5)(what are their names?)
    • to create force for...
    • 1) movement- agonist 
    • 2) resistance- antagonist 
    • 3) coordination and control- antagonist and/or synergist 
    • 4) stability- stabilizer and/or neutralizer
    • 5) no force- relaxed
  13. What is an agonist

    whats the purpose?
    • concentric contraction creating a specific movement
    • -main movers
    • -assisters
    • -they guide, refine, and minimize undesired movement
  14. what is an antagonist 

    whats the purpose?
    • eccentric contraction elongating at a specific rate 
    • -coordinate the main movement
    • -oppose the agonist
    • -typically on opposite sides of the joint (not always)
  15. what are neutralizers/synergists?
    hwl 56
    • contraction of a muscle to allow another action of...
    • - a different muscle
    • - another part of a muscle 
    • - co contract concentrically to create a new motion (mutual stabilizers)
  16. Stabilizers/fixators

    hwl 55
    isometric contraction to steady or support a bone or joint against the pull of other muscles
  17. What are the myofascial linings? what do they do?
    • epimysium-outside, surrounds the muscle 
    • perimysium-middle/around, surrounds the bundle of muscle fibers 
    • endomysium-inside, inside of the muscle wrapped around the individual muscle cells
  18. what is a sarcolemma

    describe position
    membrane that encloses the muscle cell.. just beneath the endomysium

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  19. fascicular bundle
    wrapped by perimysium. it holds a whole bundle of muscle fibers and their wrappings(endomysium and sarcolemma together)

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  20. what is a myofibril
    a full lining/bundle of sarcomeres
  21. Image Upload 3name the surfaces and the angles
    • 1) sternal end of clavicle- sternoclavicular
    • 2) acromial end of scapula- acromioclavicular

  22. Image Upload 4name? superior/inferior?
    conoid tubercle (inferior ridge)

  23. Image Upload 5name? superior/inferior?
    trapezoid line

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    name? superior/inferior?
    costal tuberosity

  25. Image Upload 7name? superior/inferior?
    subclavian groove

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    spine of scapula
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    lateral (axillary) border
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    medial (vertebral) border
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    inferior angle
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    superior border
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    superior angle
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    corocoid process
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    supraglenoid tubercle
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    subscapular fossa
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    infraglenoid tubercle
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    supraspinous fossa
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    suprascapular notch
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    infraspinous fossa
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    acromion process
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    facet for the clavicle
  41. What is bone composed of? (4)
    water, calcium, collagen, cartilage
  42. What percentage of calcium makes up bone? 
    What visual/structural properties does it give?For what purpose?
    • -60-70% of bone is calcium 
    • -calcium phosphate and carbonate form crystals, creating a long flat plate. 
    • -purpose is to give strength because its so well compressed, so it resists crushing
  43. What does collagen look like? How does it behave?
    what properties does collagen give bone?
    • -Long parallel fibers, it overlaps like brick 
    • - gives the bone a high tensile property and elasticity
  44. 5 Key characteristics to remember about muscles
    • -they only pull, not push 
    • -both ends move towards the center
    • -tension moves towards the center for shortening or lenthening
    • -they create tension, they dont flex
    • -tends to act on all joints that it crosses
  45. 4 muscle properties
    • -extensibility 
    • -elasticity 
    • -irritability/excitability 
    • -contractility
  46. elasticity
    the muscles ability to snap back
  47. extensibility
    the muscles ability to be stretched
  48. what is excitability/irritability
    excitability is driven by the NS, its irritability is the ability to respond back to the nervous system
  49. what is contractility pull or push?
    the ability to shorten, creates tension-can only pull!
  50. What are the classes of joints? describe each and example
    • synarthrosis-not moveable ex. skull suture 
    • amphiarthrosis-slightly moveable ex. pubic symphasis, acromioclavicular joint, rib-vertebral joint
    • diarthrosis- freely moveable ex. shoulder, hip, knee, etc
  51. what are the 6 types of Diarthrosis joints?
    • Gliding
    • pivot 
    • hinge 
    • ellipsoid (condyloid)
    • saddle 
    • ball and socket
  52. Gliding joint 
    What? why? example?
    • -2 somewhat flat surfaces that glide past each other
    • -they increase the amount of movement 
    • -ex. carpals, tarsals, articular surfaces of vertebrae
  53. hinge joint 

    What plane? why? example?
    • -one plane, uniaxial
    • -movement is to open/close a joint with flexion and extension 
    • -interphalangeal joints, tibia, fibula, talus
  54. pivot joint 

    What? what plane? why? example?
    • -movement of a pivot point of one bone within a "ring-like structure" of another bone 
    • -causes a true rotational movement 
    • -one plane/uniaxial 
    • -ex. atlas and axis (C1&C2), radial head and capitulum
  55. Ellipsoid (condyloid) joint

    What? why? example?
    • -a bone or set of bones that fit in an ellipsoid cavity and may rock in a couple of different directions
    • -*Circumduction: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction 
    • -2 planes, biaxial 
    • -ex. radioulnar-carpal, metacarpalphalangeal
  56. Ellipsoid joint

    which direction is adduction/abduction of the wrist?
    radial is abduction

    ulnar is adduction
  57. saddle 

    What? why? example?
    • -the bones or set of bones fit together like a rider in a saddle 
    • -2 planes, biaxial 
    • -ex. thumb (1st carpometacarpal)
    • -taluscalcaneous
  58. ball and socket joint 

    What plane? example?
    • -3 places, triaxial
    • -hip and shoulder
  59. how many joints go in each plane? 

    1 planar-
    2 planar-
    3 planar-
    • -3 joints 
    • -2 joints
    • -1 joint
  60. what are afferent nervous pathways? example of information.
    • -incoming sensory information to spinal cord and brain 
    • -ex. pressure, tension, pain, space, speed, etc
    • *(influence, affect)
    • -dorsal (back door)
  61. what are efferent nervous pathways? example of information
    • -outgoing reaction to the muscles and other tissues 
    • -they tell the muscle to contract or relax
    • *produces the effect of action
    • -ventral (front door)
  62. Insufficiency - when does it come into play?
    What is passive and active insufficiency?
    • -with two joint muscles 
    • -active:When a muscle cannot shorten anymore, occurs with the agonist.
    • -passive: When a muscle cannot stretch anymore, occurs with the antagonist.
  63. Describe the Bi(multi)articular joint muscle relationships
    Bi-articulate muscles are affected by their inability to allow the complete movements of the two joints they cross at the same time because they aren’t long enough. So they trade off tension to each other. There are 2 types of bi-articulate movement. Concurrent movement is when each muscle is contracted at one joint and relaxed at the other joint. Countercurrent movement happens when the bi-articulate muscles are either contracted or extended over both joints they cross. (HWL, 58-60)
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    rhomboid major
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    pectoralis minor
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    rhomboid minor
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    • levator scapulae
    • *dominant in scapular movement 
    • *true elevator 
    • o:c1-4 transverse processes
    • i: superior angle, upper medial border of scapula
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    • pectoralis major
    • *functionally 3 muscles
    • 1)clavicular
    • 2)sternal
    • 3)costal 
    • *twists at insertion 
    • *most powerful in saggital plane
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    latissimus dorsi
  76. Image Upload 35action, origin, insertion, properties
    • trapezius
    • *mutual neutralizer 
    • *4 parts create the u
    • I: creates a "small U" on posterior lateral clavicle, acromion process, spine of scapula
    • O: 1. base of skull 2, 3, and 4: Spinous processes C7-T12  
    • A: stabilize the scapula, adduction
    • 1) elevation
    • 2) elevation, outward/upward rotation, adduction 
    • 3)adduction 
    • 4) outward/upward rotation, depression, and adduction
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    • teres major-wrapped separately but functions as one with teres minor 
    • minor
    • o: C7-T1 at lamina 
    • i: medial border at spine
    • major
    • o: T2-5 at lamina 
    • i: middle medial border (not on inferior angle)
    • A: True adductors
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    • teres minor-wrapped separately but functions as one with teres minor 
    • minor
    • o: C7-T1 at lamina 
    • i: medial border at spine
    • major
    • o: T2-5 at lamina 
    • i: middle medial border (not on inferior angle)
    • A: True adductors
  79. Image Upload 38action, origin, insertion
    • serratus anterior
    • -reaching, pulling, punching
    • -abduction, outward/upward rotation, protraction of scapula
    • -o: lateral surface of ribs 1-8 
    • -i: anterior medial border of scapula
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Kin 151 Exam 1 Study Guide
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