Ap Euro

  1. An economic system that evolved during the Middle Ages based upon a lord-vassal relationship. It created a hierarchical society in which created self-sufficient units.
    Feudalism –
  2. (1225-1274) – Italian philosopher who was the greatest figure in the Scholastic movement. Advocated an Aristotelian philosophy that faith and reason were gifts from God and should be used by man.
    Saint Thomas Aquinas
  3. 1492-1503) - Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son, Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
    Alexander VI
  4. (1475-1521) - Pope Leo X was responsible for the political rise of the papacy in Europe. Born Giovanni de’Medici, his father was Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was made cardinal at 13 and because of the support of Pope Julius II rose through the papal ranks. He was pope during the early Reformation and excommunicated Martin Luther. What surprising is that he was never ordained a priest.
    Leo X
  5. (1265-1321) - Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy (1321), which demonstrated the powerful influence of the church on education and literature. Wrote in the vernacular.
    Dante Alighieri
  6. (1313-1375) - Giovanni Boccaccio was one of the first writers of the early Renaissance, famous for his prose. Wrote the Decameron a series of 100 short stories, which tell about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society in the time of the Black Death (1348).
  7. (1444?-1510) - One of the leading painters of the Florentine Renaissance, developed a highly personal style. He was one of the many artists sponspored by the Medici family. His most famous work was The Birth of Venus (1482).
  8. (1377-1446) - Italian architect and sculptor of the early Renaissance, celebrated for designing the dome of the cathedral of Florence. His style was anti-Gothic, preferring instead to use domes to create space. He also designed the Foundling Hospital in Florence.
  9. (1475-1564) - The greatest artist of the High Renaissance. Worked in Rome and painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.
    Michelangelo Buonarroti
  10. (1478-1529) - Wrote The Courtier, which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
  11. (r. 1519-1556) - Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was perhaps, the most powerful man in Europe during the first part of the sixteenth century. He was king of Spain, but also ruled the vast Habsburg empire, which included the Netherlands, Austria, much of Italy, Burgundy, and Spain’s possessions in the New World. He was considered the “universal monarch” and spent much of his reign defending Catholicism.
    Charles V
  12. (1475-1539) - Isabella was arguably the most powerful and influential woman of the Renaissance period. She learned the humanist languages of Greek and Latin and excelled in music. She even ruled Mantua when her husband was captured in battle.
    Isabella d’Este
  13. (1452-1519) - Leonardo dominated the Renaissance like no other person. His paintings, sculptures, engineering feats, and biological research changed the course of history. He was continually looking for patrons and spent much of his life traveling. His greatest works include the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa.
    Leonardo Da Vinci
  14. (r. 1469-1492) - The Medici’s were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. “Il Magnifico” ruled the government of Florence (1469-1492) from behind the scene. During his tenure Florence witnessed the height of her prestige and beauty.
    Lorenzo de Medici
  15. (1480-1519) - Lucrezia was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, who used his daughter to gain political power. She was one of the most notable women during the Renaissance.
    Lucrezia Borgia
  16. (1547-1616) - Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
    Miguel De Cervantes
  17. (1463-94) - Wrote On the Dignity of Man, which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there are no limits to what man can accomplish.
    Pico Della Mirandola
  18. (1386-1466) - Sculptor of the early Renaissance who studied under Ghiberti and Brunelleschi. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. He was sponsored by the Medici family of Florence. His most important statue was the David, a freestanding nude. His work expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
  19. The removal of the Moors and Jews by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.
  20. (1466?-1536) - Dutch Humanist who wanted to reform the Catholic Church. He stressed the importance of religious education. Wrote Praise of Folly. Friends with Thomas More and a critic of Martin Luther.
  21. Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
    Jacob Fugger
  22. (1276?-1337?) - Florentine painter who led the way in the use of realism and depth. His techniques for showing perspective were copied by many of the Renaissance artists.
  23. (1497-1543) - Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
    Hans Holbein the Younger
  24. Humanism was the philosophical framework of the Renaissance period. Scholars studied the ancient classics to learn what they revealed about human nature rather than for religious meanings. Humanism emphasized the rationalism of human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
  25. Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
  26. (r.1503-1513) - Very militaristic pope, who was responsible for some of the greatest art found in the Vatican. Tore down the old Saint Peter’s Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. He commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.
    Pope Julius II
  27. (1469-1527) - Wrote The Prince (1513), the first modern manual of politics. It was a very secular text based on reality and practical politics. Believed the end justifies the means. His model was Cesare Borgia.
    Niccolò Machiavelli
  28. (1533-1592) – French author who was the finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay. Published Essays in 1580.
  29. (1478-1535) - Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia, which presented a revolutionary view of society in which greed did not exist. Would not acknowledge Henry’s right to get a divorce and was beheaded.
    Sir Thomas More
  30. (1397?-1468) - Gutenberg is credited with the invention of the printing press in Germany about 1450. The first book printed was the Gutenberg Bible. With the development of the press printed items were cheap to produce and readily available which increased the demand for education.
    Johann Gutenberg
  31. Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries.
    New Monarchs
  32. (1479) - Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici’s in Florence.
    Pazzi Conspiracy
  33. (1304-1374) - Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
  34. The 1400’s.
  35. The 1500’s.
  36. (1490?-1553) - French satirical author. Gargantua and Pantagruel.
    François Rabelais
  37. A man that is multitalented and is well educated.
    Renaissance Man
  38. The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman’s.
    Revival of antiquity
  39. (1452-1498) - Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
    Friar Girolamo Savonarola
  40. Secularism
    The belief in material things instead of religious things.
  41. (1406-1457) - Wrote On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.
    Lorenzo Valla
  42. Everyday language of a specific nation.
  43. The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
  44. (1519-1589) - Queen of France who had three sons who all became kings of France. Catherine was married to Henry I, who was killed in a jousting match in 1559. She dominated French politics for almost fifty years, but especially during the reign of her sons.
    Catherine de’Medici
  45. (1534) - Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.
    Act of Supremacy
  46. Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I. Initially advocated 3 sacraments but the only 2: Communion and baptism.
  47. (1509-1564) - Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion. Although he was French he was located in Geneva, which became a theocracy. Believed in 2 sacraments: Communion and baptism. Advocated salvation through faith alone and the idea of predestination.
    John Calvin
  48. The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change, espoused by Luther.
  49. Catholic belief that the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ.
  50. (1545) - Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
    Council of Trent
  51. (1489-1556) - Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
    Thomas Cranmer
  52. (1521) - Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
    Diet of Worms
  53. (1598) - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
    Edict of Nantes
  54. When a person is expelled from the Catholic Church.
  55. French Calvinists.
  56. (1369?-1415) - Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
    John Hus
  57. (1491-1556) - Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, Spiritual Exercises.
    Ignatius Loyola
  58. Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic Church, corruption that led to reformation.
  59. Written by John Calvin in 1536. Bible the only source of Christian doctrine; only two sacraments – baptism and communion.
    The Institutes of Christian Religion
  60. Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola they were dedicated to removing the abuses of the church and restoring the Catholic Church.
  61. (1505?-1572) - Calvinist who learned from Calvin in Geneva and then dominated the movement for reform in Scotland.
    John Knox
  62. (1483-1546) - 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: Communion and baptism. Justification through faith alone, good works is a result of justification. Lutherans owe loyalty to the state. Believed in consubstantiation.
    Martin Luther
  63. The selling of church offices
  64. The practice of lending money for interest.
  65. A community in which the state is subordinate to the church. Best example was Geneva under John Calvin.
  66. Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life. God already knows who is going to Heaven regardless of their life on Earth.
  67. The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
    Johann Tetzel
  68. (1474?-1530) - Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
    Thomas Wolsey
  69. (1328?-1384) - Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope. Translated the Bible into English.
    John Wycliffe
  70. (1484-1531) - Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
    Ulrich Zwingli
  71. Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
  72. (1553-1610) - The first Bourbon king of France who ended nearly forty years of civil war. He won the War of the Three Henrys and converted to Catholicism to save France from further bloodshed stating “Paris is worth a Mass.” He was assassinated by a religious fanatic in 1610.
    Henry IV of Bourbon-Navarre
  73. (1618) - The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
    Defenestration of Prague
  74. (1648) - Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
    Peace of Westphalia
  75. (1572) - Mass slaying of Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day.
    St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
  76. French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
    War of the Three Henrys
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