Module 6: Water Major Minerals & Trace Minerals

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  1. explain the function of water in the body
    • Maintain blood volume & transport of nutrients & oxygen throughout the body.
    • The basis for the fluids synthesized throughout the body, such as saliva, bile and amniotic fluid, the fluid that surrounds a fetus growing in a woman’s uterus.
    • Lubricant for the knees & other joints. 
    • A solvent in metabolic processes.  
    • Actively participates as a reactant in numerous chemical reactions.
    • Temperature regulation
    • Waste Product removal
  2. Function of sodium in the body

    Food Source
    • Major positive ion of the extracellular fluid
    • Aids nerve impulse transmission & muscle contraction
    • water balance
    • aids glucose & amino acid absorption.

    Source: table salt, processed foods, condiments, sauces, soups, chips
  3. Function of Potassium in the body

    Food Source
    • Major positive ion of intracellular fluid
    • Aids nerve impulse transmission
    • Muscle contraction
    • Water balance

    Source: potato, squash, bananas, orange juice, milk producs, meat, legumes, whole grains
  4. What are major mineral?

    Name them (8) (WMSSCCPP)
    Mineral vital to health; required in the diet in amounts greater than 100mg/day; also called a macromineral

    • Water
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
    • Sulfur
    • Chloride
    • Calcium
    • Potassium
    • Phosphorus
  5. Function of Chloride in the body

    Food Source
    • Major negative ion of extracellular fluid
    • Participates in acid production in stomach
    • Aids nerve impulse transmission
    • Water balance.

    Source: table salt, some vegetables, processed foods
  6. Function of Calcium in the body

    Food Source
    • Bone & tooth structure
    • Blood clotting
    • Aids in nerve impulse transmission
    • Muscle contractions
    • Enzyme regulation

    Source: milk products, canned fish, leafy vegetables, tofu, fortified orange juice
  7. Function of Phosphorus in the body.

    Food source
    • Major ion of intracellular fluid
    • Bone & tooth strength
    • Part of ATP & other metabolic compounds
    • Acid-base balance

    Source: milk products, processed foods, fish, soft drinks, bakery products, meats
  8. Function of Magnesium in the body.

    Food Source
    • Bone formation
    • Aids enzyme function
    • Aids nerve & heart function

    source:wheat, bran, green veggies, nuts, chocolate, legumes
  9. What is the  function of Sulfur in the body?

    Name food source.
    • Part of vitamins & amino acids
    • Aids in drug detoxification
    • Acid-base balance

    Source - protein foods
  10. explain the role of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of hypertension
    • The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) - designed to test the effect of a diet low in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol & high in fruits, veggies, and low-fat dairy products on blood pressure.
    • The DASH diet, with exercise & weight loss provide reduction in blood pressure, dietary choices in controlling high blood pressure.
    • The fruits, veggies and whole grains in the diet contribute many other compounds to the diet. These foods are abundant in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, antioxidants and carotenoids, that can help prevent kidney stones, cancer and heart disease.
  11. estimate and evaluate adequacy of dietary calcium intake
    • Adequate calcium may help reduce the risk of hypertension, kidney stones, and colon cancer.
    • Osteoporosis is a disease that develops over many years and is most common in women. It represents an increase of bone resorption over bone building.  Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis involve consuming adequate bone building nutrients, engaging in weight-bearing physical activity, minimizing the risk of falls and not smoking.
  12. What are Trace Minerals?

    Name Them (8)  (CFZICMMS)
    Mineral vital to health that is required in the diet in amounts less than 100mg/day; also called micromineral.

    • Chromium
    • Fluoride
    • Zinc
    • Iron
    • Copper
    • Manganese
    • Molybdenum
    • Selenium
  13. discuss the major functions Iron

    Food Source?
    • Functional component of hemoglobin and other key compounds used in respiration
    • Immune function
    • Cognitive development
    • Energy metabolism

    Source:  meats; seafood; enriched breads; fortified cereals; eggs
  14. discuss the major functions of Zinc

    Food source?
    • Required for many enzymes;
    • Immune function;
    • Growth and development;
    • Stabilizes cell membranes and body protein.

    Source: seafood; meats; whole grains
  15. discuss the major functions of Copper

    Food Source?
    • Aids in iron metabolism;
    • Works in antioxidant enzymes & those involved in connective tissue metabolism.

    Source:liver; cocoa; nuts; whole grains; shellfish; legumes
  16. discuss the major functions of Manganese

    Food source?
    • Cofactor of several enzymes;
    • Involved in carbohydrate metabolism & antioxidant protection. 

    Source: nuts; tea; legumes; whole-grain cereals.
  17. Discuss the major functions of Iodine

    Food source?
    Component of thyroid hormones that regulate basal metabolism, growth, & development.

    Source: iodized salt
  18. discuss the major functions of Selenium

    Food source?
    • Part of an antioxidant system as glutathione peroxidase
    • activates thyroid hormones.

    Source: meats; eggs; fish; seafood; whole grains; nuts
  19. discuss the major functions of Chromium

    Food source?
    Enhances insulin action.

    source: eggs; liver; whole grains; nuts; mushrooms; processed m
  20. discuss the major functions of Fluoride

    Food source?
    • Increases resistance of tooth enamel to dental caries;
    • mineralization of bones and teeth.

    Source: fluoridated water, toothpaste, dental treatments, tea, seaweed
  21. discuss the major functions of Molybdenum

    Food source?
    Cofactor for several enzymes

    Source: grains, nuts & legumes
  22. describe the development of cancer
    • Cancer often results from a lack of suppressor genes or the over-activity of protooncogenes. The cancer gene (oncogene) is like an out of control protooncogene – it makes hundreds of copies of itself without any constraints.
    • Most cells exist in a balanced cycle between turning cell replication on & turning it off. This cell cycle is controlled by the genes in DNA that promote cell replication (called protooncogenes) & prevent replication (called tumor suppressor genes).
  23. describe the effect of genetic, environmental, and dietary factors on the risk of developing cancer
    • Although our genetic makeup contribute to a risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, breast & prostate cancer, genetic factors account for only about 1-15% of the incidences of all cancers.
    • Many expert believe that environmental factors, such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, and air& water pollutants; smoking; lack of physical activity; obesity; and diet play a greater role in cancer initiation & development.  
    • Various dietary factors have been associated with cancer. Further research is needed to confirm whether these factors increase or decrease cancer risk.
  24. Hypertension
    Persistently elevated blood pressure, obesity, inactivity, alcohol intake & excess salt intake all can contribute to the problem.
  25. Bioavailabilty
    degree to which the amount of an ingested nutrient is absorbed & is available to the body.
  26. Heme iron
    iron provided from animal tissues primarily as a component of hemoglobin & myoglobin. Approximately 40% of the iron in meat is heme iron; it is readily absorbed. 

    Sources: Beef, pork, poultry
  27. Non-heme iron
    iron provided from plant sources & elemental iron components of animal tissues. It is less efficiently absorbed than heme iron & absorption is more closely dependent on body needs. 

    Sources: sesame seeds, navy beans, spinach
  28. Hemochromatosis
    disorder of iron metabolism characterized by increase absorption of iron, saturation of iron-binding proteins & deposition of hemosiderin in the liver tissue.
  29. Ferritin
    Iron-binding protein in the intestinal mucosa that binds iron and prevents it from entering the bloodstream; also the primary storage form of iron in liver & other tissues.
  30. List the functions of water.
    • Maintain of blood volume & transport of nutrients & oxygen throughout the body. 
    • Basis for the fluids synthesized throughout the body, such as saliva, bile and amniotic fluid, the fluid that surrounds a fetus growing in a woman’s uterus.
    • Lubricant for the knees & other joints. 
    • Solvent in many metabolic processes & actively participates as a reactant in numerous chemical reactions.
    • Temperature regulation. 
    • Waste product removal.
  31. What factors influence blood pressure?
    • Persistently elevated blood pressure, obesity, inactivity, alcohol intake & excess salt intake all can contribute to high blood pressure.
    • Age, race, obesity & diabetes all affect the risk of high blood pressure.
  32. What nutrients influence blood pressure?
    • The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) was designed to test the effect of a diet low in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol & high in fruits, veggies, and low-fat dairy products on blood pressure.
    • The DASH diet combined with exercise & weight loss may provide the greatest reduction in blood pressure, dietary choices can be as important as medications in controlling high blood pressure. 
    • The fruits, veggies and whole grains in the diet contribute many other compounds to the diet.  These foods are abundant in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, antioxidants and carotenoids, that can help prevent kidney stones, cancer and heart disease.
  33. Create an eating plan that could help Jana reduce her risk of osteoporosis.
    By including the following non dairy foods in your diet, will give you the needed calcium.

    • Calcium fortified foods: such as fruit juices and breakfast cereals.
    • Canned fish, such as salmon and sardines, is an easy and inexpensive way to consume fish with bones, and an excellent source of calcium. The bones become soft during the canning process so they can be easily chewed and consumed with the fish.
    • Dark leafy greens: collard greens, turnip greens, bok choy, kale & broccoli all ranked really well for being absorbable sources of calcium while spinach & seaweed ranked low on the list.
  34. Using the Adequate Intake for calcium, how much calcium is required for children and adults?
    • Children 1-3 yrs – 700 mg/day
    • 4-8 yrs – 1000mg/day
    • Adults 19 to 50 yrs – 1000mg/day
  35. What might you tell a 12-year-old child about the importance of consuming sufficient calcium?
    99% of the calcium in our body can be found in our bones. At 12 years old, your bones are still growing, you need calcium to create more bone and keep strong the bone you do have.  Calcium in important for clotting your blood – so you don’t bleed to death, when you get a cut and in muscle contraction – so you can lift things.  Good food sources of calcium are milk,  cheese, fortified cereals.
  36. Which nutrients influence osteoporosis?
    • Adequate intake of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium is needed throughout life to build and maintain healthy bones.
    • Protein is also important for healthy bones, but high-protein diets increase calcium excretion and may negatively affect bone health.
  37. Explain three key functions of iron in the body?
    • Functional component of hemoglobin and other key compounds used in respiration;
    • immune function cognitive development energy metabolism
  38. Name several iron-rich food sources (including an animal and a vegetable source).
    Liver; clams; spinach, navy beans, enriched breads; fortified cereals; eggs
  39. Describe the chief function of fluoride, copper, chromium, and manganese in the body.
    • Fluoride – increases resistance of tooth enamel to dental caries; mineralization of bones and teeth.
    • Copper – aids in iron metabolism; works in antioxidant enzmes & those involved in connective tissue metabolism.
    • Chromium – enhances insulin action.
    • Manganese – cofactor of several enzymes; involved in carbohydrate metabolism & antioxidant protection.
  40. Why is selenium considered an antioxidant?
    Selenium, as part of the antioxidant defense network, helps prevent lipid peroxidation and cell membrane damage. Its ability to destroy highly reactive peroxyl free radicals spared vitamin E for use in other antioxidant functions.
  41. Describe the three stages of carcinogenesis and give examples of how diet impacts cancer initiation and promotion.
    Stage 1Initiation Phase:  Exposure of a cell to a carcinogen (cancer-causing agent) that triggers the initiation of cancer.

    • Can develop spontaneously or be induced by carcinogens, such as tobacco, radiation, alcohol, occupation toxins, viruses, food contaminants, dietary facts & drugs. 
    • The initiation stage of carcinogenesis, during which DNA is altered, is relatively short, ranging from minutes to days. 

    Stage 2Promotion State: may last for months or even years.

    • During this period, the mutation is locked into the genetic material of the cell. 
    • Compounds that increase cell division, called promoters, encourage uncontrolled replication of the altered DNA. 
    • Promoters may reduce the time available for repair mechanisms to enhance the replication of altered DNA cells. 
    • Excess alcohol, estrogen, and helicobacter pylori bacteria in the stomach all may act as promoters. 

    Stage 3Pregression Phase:  begins with the appearance of cells that grow autonomously (out of control).

    • These malignant cells proliferate, invade surrounding tissue, and metastasize to other sites.  Early in this stage, the immune system may find the altered cells and destroy them. 
    • Alternately, the cancer cells may become so defective that their DNA prevents there growth.  If nothing stops cancer cell growth, 1 or more tumors eventually develop.
  42. The main electrolytes found inside the cell are ________.
    potassium, magnesium & phosphate.
  43. When the amount of water in the body is low, the hormones _____ & _____ signal the kidneys to conserve water & salt.
    anti-diuretic hormone & aldosterone
  44. Both _____ & _____ can bind to minerals & limit their absorption.
    phytic acid & oxalic acid
  45. Most sodium in the diet comes from _____.
    processed foods & restaurant foods
  46. Low potassium intakes are associated with ______. 

    a.  eating disorders
    b.  diets that contain few fresh foods and high amounts of processed foods
    c.  excessive alcohol intake
    d.  all of the above
    d.  all of the above
  47. The functions of the chloride ion include ______.  

    A.  serving as the main anion in the intracellular fluid
    B.  both b & c
    C.  aiding the transmission of nerve impulses
    D.  forming acid in the stomach
    B.  both b & c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. ______ potassium intake and ______ sodium intake are associated with a higher risk of high blood pressure and stroke.  

    A.  low & high
    B.  high & high
    C.  high & low
    D.  low & low
    A.  low & high
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. A Blood pressure of 135/90 mm Hg is classified as _________.
    Prehypertension.
  50. Important lifestyle modification for preventing hypertension include ________. 

    a.  maintaining a healthy BMI
    b.  eating a diet rich in potassium, calcium & magnesium. 
    c.  not smoking
    d.  all of the above
    d.  all of the above
  51. Significant nondairy sources of calcium include ________.
    almonds, beans, mustard greens, broccoli and tofu.
  52. Calcium absorption is likely to be highest in _______.
    adolescent makes & females
  53. Which of the following is not a risk factor for osteoporosis?

    A.  obesity
    B.  low physical activity
    C.  low calcium & vitamin D intakes
    D.  amenorrhea
    A. obesity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Trace mineral status often is difficult to evaluate due to the relatively small amounts of minerals contained in blood and tissues and the lack of sensitive measures that reflect body mineral contents.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  55. Which is the following decreases iron absorption? 

    A.  decreased intake
    B.  phytic acid
    C.  increased need
    D.  meat protein factor
    B.  phytic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Which of he following minerals is a component of hemoglobin and myoglobin? 

    A.  iron
    B.  manganese
    C.  zinc
    D.  copper
    A.  iron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Which of the following groups is at greatest risk of iron deficiency anemia?  

    A.  adolescent girls
    B.  college students
    C.  middle aged males
    D.  well trained athletes
    A.  adolescent girls
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Accidental iron overdose is the leading cause of poisoning in young children.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  59. Which of the following is a good source of zinc?  
    A.  oysters
    B.  blueberries
    C.  low fat yogurt
    D.  lean bacon
    A.  oysters
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Which of the following is a symptom of zinc deficiency? 

    A.  cardiomyopathy
    B.  poor growth
    C.  microcytic anemia
    D.  goiter
    B.  poor growth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following proteins/enzymes contains copper? 

    A.  deiodinase
    B.  glutathione peroxidase
    C.  thyroxine
    D.  lysyl oxidase
    D.  lysyl oxidase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Manganese is involved in the body's antioxidant defense network as a component of the enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  63. Name a  function of iodine?
    aids in thyroid hormone metabolism
  64. What is associated with the development of cretinism?
    iodine deficiency
  65. Selenium deficiency can cause impaired iodine metabolism.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  66. Which of the following is not classified as an ultratrace mineral? 

    A.  iodine
    B.  boron
    C.  vanadium
    D.  arsenic
    A.  iodine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
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316749
Card Set
Module 6: Water Major Minerals & Trace Minerals
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Chp. 14 & 15
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