Module 5: Fat & Water Soluble Vitamins

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  1. identify the water-soluble vitamins and list several sources for each
    B-vitamins

    • Thiamin – pork & pork products, enriched & whole-grain cereals, eggs, nuts, legumes
    • Riboflavin – milk & milk products, mushrooms, eggs, liver, enriched grains
    • Niacin – meat, poultry, fish, enriched & whole-grain breads & cereals, tryptophan conversion to niacin
    • Pantothenic Acid – Widely distributed in foods
    • Biotin – nuts, seeds, fish, whole grains, many other foods
    • Folic Acid – green vegetables, liver, enriched cereal products, legumes, oranges
    • B-6 (pyridoxine) – animal protein foods, potatoes, bananas, legumes, avocados
    • B-12 (cobalamin)- animal foods, fortified ready to eat breakfast cereals

    Vitamin C – citrus fruits, papayas, strawberries, broccoli, potatoes, greens


    Choline – eggs, meat, fish, milk, wheat germ plus self-synthesis
  2. identify the fat-soluble vitamins and list several sources for each
    • Vit A – liver, fish, fish oils, fortified milk, eggs, dark green & yellow0orange veggies & fruits (carrots, spinach, winter squash, sweet potato, mangos, cantaloupe, peaches & apricots)
    • D – Fortified milk, fish oils, oily fish
    • E – plant oils, seeds, nuts, products made from oils
    • K – green vegetables, synthesis by intestinal microorganisms
  3. Define the term vitamin & list three food sources for each
    • Essential, organic substances needed in small amounts in the diet.
    • They are not a source of energy.  They aid in energy metabolism as well as in the growth, development and maintenance of body tissues.
    • Sources: Foods of both plant & animal origin supply vitamins in the diet. Vitamins consumed in foods as part of a varied diet may be more beneficial than vitamins taken separately as dietary supplements. Dietary supplements also can provide needed vitamins.
  4. identify vitamin-deficiency diseases Rickets
    • Vit. D deficiency occurs in the growing bones of children.
    • Causes bones to weaken and bow under pressure.
  5. identify vitamin-deficiency diseases Beriberi
    • Thiamine deficiency
    • causes weight loss
    • weakness
    • peripheral neuropathy
  6. identify common vitamin-deficiency diseases Ariboflavinosis
    • Riboflavin
    • inflammation of mouth and tongue
    • cracks at corner of mouth
  7. identify vitamin-deficiency diseases Pellagra
    • Niacin deficiency
    • causes diarrhea
    • dermatitis
    • dementia
    • and death
  8. identify vitamin-deficiency diseases Scurvy
    • Vit. C deficiency
    • poor wound healing
    • pinpoint hemorrhages
    • bleeding gums
  9. describe the toxicity symptoms caused by excess consumption of certain fat-soluble
    • vitamins A – headache, vomiting, double vision, dry mucous membranes, bone & joint pain, liver damage, hemorrhage, coma, spontaneous abortions, birth defects
    • D – Calcificaion of soft tissues, impaired growth, excess calcium in the blood, excretion in the urine.
    • E – Inhibits vit. K metabolism
    • K – Rare, can cause hemolytic anemia
  10. Free radical
    short-lived form of a compound that has an unpaired electron, causing it to seek an electron from another compound.  Free radicals are strong oxidizing agents and can be very destructive to electron-dense cell components, such as DNA & cell membranes.
  11. Redox agents
    Chemicals that can readily undergo both oxidation (loss of an electron) and reduction (gain of an electron). Fancy name for antioxidant list 2 examples E C
  12. Retinoids
    • a collective term for the biologically active forms of vitamin A.
    • Vit. A refers to the performed retinoids & provitamin-A carotenoids that can be converted to Vit. A activity. “performed Vit. A” refers to the fact they don’t need to be converted in the body to become biologically active. (unlike carotenoids)

    • Retinoid exist in 3 forms: retinol (an alcohol), retinal (an aldehyde) & retinoic acid.
    • Carotenoids – a yellow-orange pigment material in fruit & vegetables, some of which are pro-vitamins – they can be converted into Vit. A
    • Of the 6000 or more carotenoids, only alpha-carotene, beta-carotene & beta cryptoxanthin can be converted to biologically active forms of Vit. A.
  13. Natural vs. synthetic vitamin E
    The natural form of vitamin E is more potent than the synthetic form
  14. Rickets
    Vit. D deficiency occurs in the growing bones of children. Causes bones to weaken and bow under pressure.
  15. Beriberi
    • Thiamin deficiency
    • Causes weight loss
    • Weakness
    • Peripheral neuropathy
  16. Ariboflavinosis
    • Riboflavin
    • Inflammation of mouth and tongue
    • Cracks at corner of mouth
  17. Pellagra
    • Niacin deficiency
    • Causes diarrhea
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia (death)
  18. Scurvy
    • Vit. C deficiency
    • poor would healing
    • pinpoint hemorrhages
    • bleeding gums
  19. Enrichment (of vitamins/minerals)
    term generally meaning that they vitamins thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and folate and the mineral iron have been added to a grain product to improve its nutritional quality.
  20. Fortification
    term generally meaning that vitamins, minerals, or both have been added to a food product in excess of what was originally found in the product.
  21. Water-soluble vitamins
    vitamins that dissolve in water, includes the B-vitamins and Vitamin C
  22. food sources of Water Soluble Vitamins
    B-vitamins

    • Thiamin – pork & pork products, enriched & whole-grain cereals, eggs, nuts, legumes
    • Riboflavin – milk & milk products, mushrooms, eggs, liver, enriched grains
    • Niacin – meat, poultry, fish, enriched & whole-grain breads & cereals, tryptophan conversion to niacin
    • Pantothenic Acid – Widely distributed in foods
    • Biotin – nuts, seeds, fish, whole grains, many other foods
    • Folic Acid – green vegetables, liver, enriched cereal products, legumes, oranges
    • B-6 (pyridoxine) – animal protein foods, potatoes, bananas, legumes, avocados
    • B-12 (cobalamin)- animal foods, fortified ready to eat breakfast cereals

    • C – citrus fruits, papayas, strawberries, broccoli, potatoes, greens
    • Choline – eggs, meat, fish, milk, wheat germ plus self-synthesis
  23. Fat-soluble vitamins
    vitamins that dissolve in fat and such substances as ether & benzene, but not readily in water; vitamins A, D, E & K
  24. Food sources for Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    • A – liver, fish, fish oils, fortified milk, eggs, dark green & yellow0orange veggies & fruits (carrots, spinach, winter squash, sweet potato, mangos, cantaloupe, peaches & apricots)
    • D – Fortified milk, fish oils, oily fish
    • E – plant oils, seeds, nuts, products made from oils
    • K – green vegetables, synthesis by intestinal microorganisms
  25. Carnitine
    compound used to shuttle fatty acids from the cytosol of the cell into mitochondria
  26. Where does vitamin absorption occur?
    Fat-Soluble Vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine with the help of bile and pancreatic lipase. They are carried by chylomicrons into the lymphatic circulation.

    Water-Soluble Vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine and released directly into the blood.
  27. What are Retinoids?
    • Term for the biologically active forms of vitamin A.
    • Vitamin A refers to the performed retinoids & provitamin-A carotenoids that can be converted to vitamin A activity.
  28. What is the relationship of beta-carotene to vitamin A?
    Beta-carotene can be converted to biologically active forms of Vit. A.
  29. Where is vitamin A stored?
    • Stores are found in the liver, with small amounts in adipose tissue, kidneys, bone marrow, testicles and eyes.  
    • The liver stores enough vitamin A to last for several mounts to protect against vitamin A deficiency.
  30. What is the function of vitamin A?
    • Vision in dim light and color vision
    • cell differentiation
    • bone growth
    • immunity
    • and reproduction.
  31. List the symptoms of deficiency of Vit. A
    • Poor growth
    • night blindness
    • total blindness
    • dry skin
    • xerophthamia
    • hyperkeratosis
    • impaired immune function.
  32. What occurs when large amounts of carotenoids are consumed, and is this harmful?
    High carotenoids concentration in the body can turn the skin a yellow-orange color, a condition termed hypercarotenemia or carotenemia.  This is not harmful to overall health.
  33. Who is at risk for vitamin D deficiency?
    Dark-skinned individuals, older adults with low intakes or low UV exposure, and patients with fat malabsorption syndromes.
  34. How does vitamin D differ from the other fat-soluble vitamins?
    Dietary source is not required if synthesis (skin cells can synthesize a sufficient supply from a derivative of cholesterol)is adequate to meet needs, the vitamin is more correctly classified as a “conditional”vitamin, or prohormone.
  35. How can a lack of vitamin D in childhood result in rickets?
    Rickets – Vit. D deficiency occurs in the growing bones of children.  Causes bones to weaken and bow under pressure.
  36. Name four good food sources of vitamin E
    • Plant oils, seeds, nuts products made from oils.
    • Specific foods are avocado, almonds, peanuts and sunflower seeds.
  37. Why is vitamin E known as the anti-aging vitamin?
    It works as an antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals, preventing widespread destruction of both cell membranes and DNA.
  38. What is considered a safe supplemental amount of vitamin E to take daily, and what can happen if amounts in excess of this are consumed?
    The Daily Value for vitamin E used on food and supplement labels is 30IU. In excess – inhibits vitamin K metabolism.
  39. Name three food sources of vitamin K.
    Kale, turnip greens, parsley.
  40. How does vitamin K help in the formation of blood clots?
    Vitamin K is needed for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver and the conversion of preprothrombin to the active blood-clotting factor called prothrombin
  41. What population groups are at increased risk of a vitamin K deficiency?
    Those taking antibiotics for a long period of time, adults with low green vegetable intake, and patients with fat malabsorption syndromes.
  42. What are three general functions of riboflavin?
    Energy metabolism, critical in the formation of other B-vitamins & antioxidants.
  43. Name two food sources of riboflavin.
    Milk products & mushrooms.
  44. What type of anemia signifies a folate deficiency?
    Megaloblatic Anemia – amemia characterized by abnormally large, nucleated, immature red blood cells, which result from the inability of a precursor cell to divide normally.
  45. What roles do HCl, pepsinogen, intrinsic factor, and the ileum play in vitamin B-12 absorption?
    • In the stomach, HCL & pepsinogen release vitamin-12 bound to protein in food.
    • In the small intestine, Vitamin B-12 links with intrinsic factor.
    • In the Ileum, vitamin B-12/intrinsic factor complex is absorbed into blood and binds to transport protein transcolbalamin II.
  46. How are vitamin B-12 and folate metabolism related?
    Because of its interaction with folate, a deficiency of vitamin B-12 results in the same type of megalobastic anemia, as well as excess hormocysteine in the blood.
  47. What foods are good sources of vitamin B-12?
    • Liver
    • kidneys
    • heart
  48. Carotenoids are a precursor form of _______.

    A.  vitamin E
    B.  vitamin D
    C.  vitamin K
    D.  vitamin A
    D. vitamin A
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which food provides very little vitamin A?

    A.  banana
    B.  liver
    C. spinach
    D. mango
    A.  banana
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Vitamin A is involved in all of the following functions except _________.
    A.  hemoglobin synthesis
    B.  vision & dark adaptation
    C.  cell differentiation
    D.  resistance to infection
    A.  hemoglobin synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. A deficiency is associated with the symptoms of night blindness, keratinization and increased infections.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a. true
  52. Which of the following vitamins also can be classified as a hormone because the body can synthesize it? 

    A.  vitamin A
    B.  vitamin K
    C.  vitamin D
    D.  vitamin E
    C.  vitamin D
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. which of the following is a good source of vitamin D?

    A.  dark, leafy greens
    B.  salmon & sardines
    C.  enriched grains
    D.  yellow-orange vegetables
    B.  salmon & sardines
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Which of the following is a function of vitamin D?

    A.  produces blood-clotting factors
    B.  serves as a co-enzyme in energy metabolism
    C.  regulates calcium homeostasis
    D.  serves as an antioxidant to protect against lipid peroxidation
    C.  regulates calcium homeostasis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, multiple sclerosis and hypertension.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  56. Vitamin D deficiency in children results in a condition called ___________.

    A.  xerophthalmia
    B.  rickets
    C.  osteomalacia
    D.  beriberi
    B.  rickets
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Wheat germ & vegetable oils are a good source of vitamin E.

    a.  true
    b.  flase
    a. true
  58. Large does of vitamin E have been shown to interfere with vitamin K activity & to increase the risk of bleeding.

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  59. Which of the following is the best source of vitamin K?

    A.  citrus fruits
    B.  enriched grains
    C.  dark, leafy greens
    D.  nuts & seeds
    C.  dark, leafy greens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Which vitamin aids in blood clotting?

    A.  vitamin K
    B.  vitamin E
    C.  vitamin D
    D.  vitamin A
    A.  vitamin K
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Vitamin & mineral supplements are tightly regulated by the FDA. 

    a.  true
    b.  false
    b.  false
  62. When compared with whole grain products, enriched cereals and grains provide the same or higher amounts of all the b-vitamins.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    b.  false
  63. Thiamin pryrophosphate (TPP) is required for ________.  

    A.  protein synthesis
    B.  DNA synthesis
    C.  fatty acid synthesis
    D.  carbohydrate metabolism
    D.  carbohydrate metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Thiamin deficiency can be found among _______.  

    A.  both a & c
    B.  both a & b
    C.  people in developing countries reliant of corn as a stable food
    D.  people in developing countries reliant on white rice as a staple food
    E.  heavy users of alcohol
    B.  both a & b
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Which of the following water-soluble vitamins participate in oxidation reduction reactions?

    A.  vitamin C, riboflavin & niacin
    B.  folate, vitamin B-12 and B-6
    C.  thiamin, riboflavin & niacin
    D.  biotin, pantothenic acid and niacin
    A.  vitamin C, riboflavin & niacin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. An alcoholic who consumes no dairy products is most at risk of developing _______ deficiency.  

    A.  choline
    B.  thiamin
    C.  riboflavin
    D.  vitamin B-6
    C. riboflavin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Niacin can be synthesized in the cells from _______. 

    A.  fatty acids
    B. riboflavin
    C.  tryptophan
    D.  glucose
    C. tryptophan
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Deficiencies of ______ & ______ are extremely rare.  

    A.  vitamin C & folate
    B.  vitamin B-12 & folate
    C.  vitamin C & niacin
    D.  biotin & pantothenic acid
    D.  biotin & pantothenic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Transaminiation reaction allow the formation of nonessential amino acids.  Which vitamin is required for these reactions? 

    A.  folate
    B.  vitamin B-6
    C.  riboflavin
    D.  vitamin B-12
    B.  vitamin B-6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. The absorption of folic acid in supplements and fortified foods exceeds that of folate found in foods.  

    a.  true
    b.  false
    a.  true
  71. Good sources of folate include _______. 

    A.  tuna, chicken, beef & dairy products
    B.  lentils, spinach, asparagus, and fortified foods. 
    C.  dairy products, fortified foods and nuts
    D.  papaya, limes, oranges and potato
    B.  lentils, spinach, asparagus & fortified foods.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. The prevention of neural tube defects is best achieved by?
    good folate status prior to becoming pregnant
  73. Macrocytic anemia, peripheral neuropathy & impaired cognitive function are signs of ______ deficiency.
    vitamin B-12
  74. Vitamin C is required for the formation of _______ required to synthesize collage.
    Hydroxyproline.
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Module 5: Fat & Water Soluble Vitamins
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Chp. 12 & 13
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