Chapter 10-12

  1. Formal Qualifications for House
    • Must be at least 25
    • Have been a citizen for 7 years
    • Inhabit a state from which they are elected
  2. Informal Qualifications for House
    • Gender
    • Ethnicity
    • Political Experience
    • Name Recognition
    • Party Affiliation
    • Being able to raise money
    • Being Incumbent
  3. Formal Qualifications for Senate
    • Be at least 30
    • Been a citizen for 9 years
    • Inhabit a state from which they are elected
  4. Informal Qualifications for Senate
    • Party Affiliation
    • Gender
    • Ethnicity
    • Name Recognition
    • Being Incumbent
  5. Westberry v Sanders (1964):
    requires each district in a state to have a similar-sized populations
  6. Gibbons vs Ogden (1824):
    • interpreted “commerce” to include all commercial exchanges between nations and parts of nations, not just the buying and selling of goods
    • This broad interpretation leaves many questions for Congress
  7. Gomillion v Lightfoot (1960):
    Outlawed Gerrymandering. Enforced 15th Amendment
  8. McCulloch v Maryland (1819):
    Liberal Construction, grants Congress implied powers
  9. Congress’ 5 Major Roles
    • Legislators
    • Reps of their Constituents
    • Committee Members
    • Servants of their Constituents
    • Politicians
  10. Major Roles of House
    • Speaker of the House (Paul Ryan) - Preside and Keep Order
    • Majority Floor and Whips (Speaker)
    • Minority (Assist Majority)
  11. Major Roles of Senate
    • President (Vice President (Joe Biden))Is not chosen nor a member of that body, much less powerful
    • President Pro Tempore (Patrick Leahy)Serves in president’s absence
  12. Vote in the House where Speaker counts yes and no votes
    Voice Votes
  13. Vote in the House where Those in favor and against are counted by the clerk
    Standing Votes
  14. Vote in the House that Goes member by member can be demanded on by one fifth of members present
    Roll-Call Vote
  15. Vote in the House that is Rare, Count votes for each party
    Teller Vote
  16. Committees in Action
    • Report bill favorably, with a “do pass” recommendation. Chairman then steers bill through debate
    • Refuse to report bill (Pigeonhole)
    • Report bill in amended form (many are changed)
    • Report bill w/ unfavorable recommendation (Not often)
    • Report committee bill (Produces rewritten measure to substitute bills referred to it)
  17. Powers denied to Congress
    • By the Constitution
    • By the Constitution’s Silence
    • By ability to create a federal system
  18. Those that belong to all sovereign nations (control national borders)
    Inherent Powers
  19. Expressed Powers
    • Those stated in Constitution (regulate both foreign and interstate commerce)
    • Power to Tax
    • Power to Borrow
    • Power of Bankruptcy
    • Power of Currency
    • Foreign Policy
    • Power of War
    • Copyrights and Patents
    • Postal Powers
    • Federal Lands
    • Eminent Domain
  20. Those not stated in Constitution but drawn from expressed powers (b/c they can regulate commerce, they can set minimum wage)
    Implied Powers
  21. Implied Powers
    • Necessary and Proper Clause: Clause that increases the power of the implied powers
    • Elastic Clause: Allows Congress to decide how it should carry out the many powers given to it by Constitution
    • Strict vs Liberal Construction
    •     -Strict: Thomas Jefferson, Anti-Federalists, Should only use expressed powers and implied powers necessary to carry out expressed powers
    •     -Liberal: Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, McCulloch v Maryland
    • Title III of Civil Rights Act
    • Title IX of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act
    • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  22. NonLegislative Powers
    • Elections
    •     -The House chooses President
    •     -Senate chooses Vice President
    • Impeachment
    •     -Andrew Johnson: Civil War Aftermath
    •     -Richard Nixon: Watergate
    •     -Bill Clinton: Perjury and Obstruction
    • Control Executive Powers
    •     -Presidential appointments must be confirmed in Senatorial majority vote
  23. Measures that apply to the nation as a whole
    Public Bills:
  24. Apply to certain persons or places
    Private Bills:
  25. Special measures, have force of law, used to deal with temporary mattersFunding inaugurations or proposing constitutional amendments
    Joint Resolutions:
  26. do not have force of law
    Used when both House and Senate want to state a position
    Concurrent Resolutions
  27. Used by each house to adopt or amend rules
    Simple Resolutions:
  28. Provision tacked on to an unrelated bill, such as appropriations bill
  29. Believe they should vote however their constituents want them to, even if it means going against the delegate’s or their party’s views
  30. Guided by personal views, even if it means going against their constituents
  31. Place their loyalty to political party first. They support party platform and leaders
  32. Try to balance other three approaches- personal, party loyalty and wishes of constituents
  33. Different Types of Representation
    • Delegates
    • Trustees
    • Partisans
    • Politicos
  34. House Positions
    Speaker of the House:
    Majority Floor Leader: 
    Minority Floor Leader: 
    Majority Whip: 
    Minority Whip:
    • Speaker of the House: Paul Ryan
    • Majority Floor Leader: Kevin McCarthy
    • Minority Floor Leader: Nancy Pelosi
    • Majority Whip: Steve Scalise
    • Minority Whip: Steny Hoyer
  35. Senate Positons
    President Pro Tempore:
    Majority Floor Leader:
    Minority Floor Leader:
    Majority Whip:
    Minority Whip:
    • President: Joe Biden
    • President Pro Tempore: Patrick Leahy
    • Majority Floor Leader: Mitch McConnell
    • Minority Floor Leader: Harry Reid
    • Majority Whip: John Cornyn
    • Minority Whip: Dick Durbin
  36. How many members of House
    435 Members(Population)
  37. How many members of Senate
    100 Senators(Equal)
  38. Start of Congressional Term:
    January 3rd
  39. 1st Woman in house:
    Nancy Pelosi
  40. Meeting for Congress:
  41. 1st Postmaster General:
    Benjamin Franklin
  42. Percentage of Incumbent continuing their reign:
    Over 90%
  43. # of subcommittees:
    99 (20 permanent committees)
  44. How much do Senators make:
  45. What Resolution limits President’s power to deploy troops:
    War Powers Resolution of 1973
  46. How many special sessions have been called
    • 27 joint(1948 Truman)
    • senate only 46(1933 FDR)
    • house only 0
  47. What fixed the size of the house at 435 members
    Reappointment Act of 1929
  48. How does the Senate differ from the House
    • Only has 100 members
    • members have 6 year terms
    • 30yrs old, citizen 9 yrs, live in state
    • less subject to public pressure and more concerned about national issues
  49. This made Senators elected by popular vote in statewide elections
    17th amendment
  50. How many people were expelled from the Senate
    15 mostly during the civil war
  51. Priviledges of Congress
    • cannot be arrested for civil crimes
    • cannot be charged with libel or slander for anything they say in COngress
  52. 3 purposes why government collects taxes
    • public projects
    • protect public health and safety
    • protect domestic industries
  53. Chapter 7 and 13 bancruptcy
    • chapter 7 - a debtor gives up property to pay creditors
    • chapter 13 - a debtor works out a long term payment plan
  54. When did congress create legal paper money
  55. Factors of Fair Use
    • the purpose and character of the use
    • the nature of the copyrighted work
    • the amount of the work used
    • the effect of the use
  56. The Supreme court upheld the idea of  _____ in MuColloch vs Maryland 1818
    implied powers - liberal constructionalist
  57. Pros and Cons of Seniority Rule
    • Seniority Rule - an unwritten custom granting the most important posts in Congress to the party members with the longest service.
    • Critics say this rule ignores ability, discourages younger members, limits fresh ideas
    • Supporters say the rule ensures experienced leadership and is easy to apply without debate
  58. House Committees
    • 20
    • Rules, Ways and Means, Foreign Affairs, Armed Services
  59. Senate Committees
    • 16
    • Armed Services, Financial, Judiciary, Foreign Relations
  60. How many subcommittees
    • 99 in house
    • 70 in Senate
  61. Must all tax bills start in the House
  62. stalling tactic used by minority of senators to talk a bill to death
  63. allows debate to be limited by a special procedure that requires support of 60 senators
Card Set
Chapter 10-12
Chapters 10-12