GI2- Ruminant Liver Dz

  1. Liver problems as perceived by clients. (7)
    poor doer, failure to gain weight/ weight loss, poor milk production, diarrhea/constipation, altered mentation, skin problems, "yellow eyes"
  2. What are the few ways to evaluate the liver? (3)
    liver enlargement (caudal to 13th rib) via US, blood work, liver biopsy and histopath
  3. If a close-up cow's total protein (TP) is less than 7, then likely...
    she is not getting proper nutrition....look at the ration.
  4. Newborn with signs of liver failure, suspect ___________.
  5. Adult periparturient Holstein cow with signs of liver failure, suspect ___________.
    hepatic lipidosis
  6. Non-vaccinated animals with signs of liver failure, suspect ___________.
  7. Clinical signs of liver disease. (13)
    liver pain on palpation, anemia, hypoproteinemia/low ALB, ascites, brisket edema/ bottle jaw, fever, anorexia, weight loss, HE, liver enlargement/ small liver, dermatitis, icterus, hemorrhage
  8. Fever and anorexia are often associated with __(2)__ liver disorders.
    liver abscess, acute hepatitis
  9. Weight loss, diarrhea, tenesmus, and rectal prolapse are often associated with __(2)__.
    PA toxicosis, coccidia
  10. Liver enlargement, palpable behind the 13th rib, is consistent with __(2)__.
    liver abscess, severe hepatic lipidosis
  11. What blood work values are NOT useful for assessing liver function in ruminants? (3)
    bile acids (sometimes used in camelids), icterus, ALT
  12. What is the only liver specific enzyme in large animals?
  13. What are common liver diseases in ruminants? (6)
    Clostridium novyii type B and D, Vit K deficiency, hepatic lipidosis (pregnancy toxemia, ketosis), copper toxicity, PA intoxication, caudal vena cava system (liver abscess)
  14. Infectious necrotic hepatitis is caused by ____________.
    C. novyii type B
  15. Bacillary hemoglobinuria is caused by _____________.
    C. novyii type D
  16. C. novyii type B usually happens in _________ when there is poor _________; it usually presents as __(3)__ WITHOUT __(2)__.
    fall/winter; sudden death following fever, anorexia; hemoglobinemia/uria
  17. C. novyii type D usually presents as... (5)
    sudden death associated with fever, anorexia, hemoglbonuria, blood does not clot, hemoglobinemia
  18. How do you prevent C.novyii associated liver diseases? (2)
    vaccination 2 doses 3-4 weeks apart, anthelminitic effective against flukes
  19. If you get the opportunity, how do you treat C. novyii associated liver diseases? (4)
    Pen G, Oxytet, fluids, whole blood transfusions
  20. How are C. novyii infections often initiated in the liver? (4)
    abscess, fluke migration, anaerobic environment, trauma
  21. What are causes of clotting factor deficiencies in ruminants? (2)
    moldy sweet clover, coumarin-type rodenticides
  22. How do you treat clotting factor deficiencies? (2)
    whole blood, Vit K
  23. How do ruminants present with PA toxicity? (5)
    • diarrhea, weight loss, ascites, tenesmus, prolapsed rectum in CALVES¬†esp.
    • [liver values are NORMAL]
  24. What blood work value can you NOT use as an indicator of liver function in young calves and why?
    GGT- it is always elevated in young calves due to colostrum consumption (in fact, if it's not elevated, that's cause for concern....maybe didn't get colostrum)
  25. How can you attempt to treat PA toxicity?
    usually futile but you can change feed, maintain blood glucose
  26. What causes hepatic lipidosis in cows? (5)
    prolonged dry period, over-conditioned dairy cows, excess body fat over-saturates hepatocytes with lipid, NEFAs then ketone production
  27. Hepatic lipidosis occurs _________ in dairy cows, _________ in beef cows, and _________ in sheep and goats.
    post-partum; pre-partum; pre-partum
  28. What do liver abscesses result from? (2)
    grain engorgement (rumen acidosis--> bacterial translocation via portal circulation), liver fluke migration
  29. What are the most common bacterial etiologies of liver abscesses? (3)
    F. necrophorum, T. pyogenes, Bacteroides
  30. Clinical signs of liver abscesses. (6)
    reduced rate of gain, anorexia, decreased milk production, [neonates] umbilical infection, intermittent fever (periodic bacteremia), enlarged liver
  31. What is the treatment of liver abscesses? (3)
    long-term penicillin, tetracycline, supportive care
  32. Copper toxicity mainly occurs in ________ due to...
    sheep; mistakes at feed mill (cattle/horse feed fed to sheep)
  33. Describe the pathogenesis of copper toxicity.
    Cu accumulates in lysosomes leading to necrosis, serum copper results in hemolysis
  34. If you have a lot of ________ in the diet, the animal will be able to tolerate more copper.
  35. How do you treat copper toxicity? (4)
    ammonium molybdate, tetrathiolmolybdates, sodium sulfate, supportive care
  36. What causes primary photosensitization?
    • Type I- toxic plant ingestion
    • Type II- aberrant pigment metabolism (endogenous)
  37. What causes secondary photosensitization?
    hepatogenous (Type III)- hepatic disease leading to reduced biliary excretion of phylloerythrin
Card Set
GI2- Ruminant Liver Dz
vetmed GI2