Patho final

  1. The study of functional alterations in human health because of an injury, disease or sydrome describes which of the following
  2. Which of the following is defined as a negative outcome with complications that impact the quality of life
  3. What is a dynamic balance in the body marked by the appropriate and effective response to stimuli, thereby keeping the body in a steady state
  4. You have influenza, identify a systemic manifestation of that condition
  5. You are expecting you first child and are told that child has 1 in 8800 chance of being born with a congenital abnormally, This statistic refers to the
  6. One of your patients wants to know what has caused his illness. This information is termed the
  7. Mrs. Johnson has just turned 40 years old and has agreed to undergo a mammogram even though she has no family history of breast cancer. This procedure is an example of what level of prevention
    Secondary prevention
  8. You received a paper cut while turning the page in your textbook Identify a local manifestation of that injury
  9. Five-year survival rates are often applied to patients with cancer as an indication of this
  10. Your father is on a rehabilitation unit after a stroke, so that he can relearn how to perform his usual activities of daily living, What leve of prevention is implemented here
  11. You are diagnosed with an illness and no one is sure of the cause. This condition would be termed
  12. This is defined as group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function
  13. The transport mechanism requiring energy is which of the following
    active transport
  14. Which of the following characteristics of plasma membrane
    contains a bilayer of lipids with polar heads
  15. This refers to the loss of cell differentiation and therefore the loss of cell function
  16. Cells develop into tissues with specialized structure and function through the process of
  17. Cell death by necrosis is
    often a response to inflammation
  18. Cerebral atrophy in which the hippocampus and cerebral cortex is affected leads to which of the following diseases
    Alzheimer's disease
  19. What term describes cells that are enlarged, with darkened nuclei and abnormal chromatin
  20. reduction in functional demand leads to cellular
  21. Due to a persistent stressor, columnar cells turn into squamous cells as a method of adaption. This process is known as
  22. Which of the following can cause cardia hypertrophy
    prolonged hypertension
  23. Which of the following is a conditon of cellular hyperplasia brought about from excessive hormonal stimulation and leading to overgrowth of bones, cartilage, soft tissues and organs
  24. In cervical dysplasia, what is happening to the cells
    Abnormal growth and disordered differentiation in dividing cells
  25. Which of the following is the most common environmental pollutants known to cause cellular damage
    cigarette smoking
  26. The pathologist is looking under the microscope to investigate the cause of tissue damage. What will be the first thing the pathologist will see when the nucleus dies in the cell
  27. The pathologist has concluded that there was cellular injury and not a natural event. What has the pathologist seen under the microscope that gave her this conclusion
    The nucleus has dissolved but the cell membrane is intact
  28. You are the nurse examining a 4-year-old girl. You look in the chart and it states that ths patient has acult lymphoblastic leukemia. a cardiac defect and mental retardation and had been diagnosed with down syndrome. Remembering your biophysical pathology class, you recall that in down syndrome, things did not grow or mature properly. With this in mind, of the following, what other manifestations or features do you expect to find in this patient
    Macroglossia (enlarged tongue)
  29. You are the nurse examining a 16-year-old boy. The features you have observed are the following; tall, slim, scant pubic hair, atrophic testes and penis and has feminine characteristics. What chromosomal abnormality do you suspect for this patient
    46, XXY
  30. A person's phenotype can be best described as
    Traits that ar observable or apparent
  31. Which of these conditions follows a multifactorial pattern of inheritance
    coronary artery disease
  32. The target of damage of Huntington Disease is
    nerve tissue
  33. Mitochondrial gene disorders are transmitted to
    both daughters and sons
  34. This type of alterations in chromosomal structure occurs when a large segment of DNA breaks from one chromosome and reattaches to a different chromosome
  35. Which of the following neural tube defect has an incomplete closure with protrusion of meninges and cerebrospinal fluid
  36. What hemoglobin type is produced during sickle cell crisis
  37. Which of the following manifests with a simian crease
    Trisomy 21
  38. You are the nurse examining a newborn and you noticed leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) in left ey. You have done will in your Pathophysiology class so you know that this may be caused by a tumor suppressor gene. What is the normal function of this gene
    Regulate the rate at which cells divide and die
  39. A patient developed lung cancer from many years of exposure to asbestos. Even after the patient was no longer exposed to the asbestos, the tumor continued to grow. This type of development when the tumor no longer requires continued exposure to the cancer promoter (asbestos) is called
  40. Which of the following is/are malignant tumors
    adenocarcinoma, liposarcoma
  41. You are the nurse assisting in a colonoscopy. If the patient is found to have colorectal cancer, what turmor suppressor gene would most likely be responsible for thsi patient's condition
  42. You aunt is told that she has breast carcinoma "In situ". what does this mean
    The breast carcinoma is confined to the epithelium
  43. Without this, tumor cells would be unable to establish a nutrient network to support continued over proliferation
  44. You are the nurse for a patient that comes to the clinic concerned about a painless lymph node in the neck. A diagnosis of lymphoma is made. Which of the following would indicate that the lymphoma as Hodgkin lymphoma
    presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
  45. Which gene has been implicated most frequently in the development of cancer
  46. The release of chemical mediators and energy utilization by neoplastic cells lead to this systemic manifestation of cancer
  47. Which of the following is a malignant neoplasm of blood and blodd forming organs and it is the most common cancer in children
    acut lymphocytic leukemia
  48. Which of the following tumor suppressor genes inhibits apoptosis
  49. This is a process of classifying the extent of spread of neoplasms and refers to the tumor size, location, lymph node involvement and spread
  50. Cirrhosis, a complication of chronic hepatitis, leads to liver failure by all of the following except
    Massive destruction of kupffer cells
  51. Which of the following is most likely found in the CSF of a patient with bacterial meningitis
    Hight neutrophil count and high protein count
  52. What type of immune cells are affected by multiple myeloma
    plasma cells
  53. Which characteristics explains why some pathogens do not cause disease in humans
    receptor binding
  54. Which of the following characteristics of tinea versicolor
    presents as hypopigmented patches
  55. hypothalamic sensory neurons that promote thirst when stimulated are called
  56. Which of the following vitamin deficiency is most likely if you are unable to absorb fat
    vitamin A
  57. What causes gluten malabsorption in celiac disease
    t-cell mediated hypersensitivity
  58. What immunoglobulin can be passed on as passive immunity from the mother to fetus
  59. This type of hypersensitivity reaction involves degranulation of basophils and mast cells when IgE binds to an allergen
    immediate hypersensitivity reaction
  60. This type of hypersensitivity reaction involves complement activation stimulated by deposition of bound antigen to antibody
    immune complex reaction
  61. Which of the following is an example of type iii hypersensitivity reaction
    systemic lupus erythematosus
  62. Anaphylaxis is mediated by which class of antibody
  63. You notice that after you sprained your ankle that the ankle became swollen, red, and hot. Why did the ankle get hot
    increased blood flow to the site
  64. You are cooking spaghetti and while pouring the pasta in to the colander you splash scalding water on your arm. The area becomes red, and painful but later no blisters formed. How would this burn be classified
    Superficial partial thickness burn
  65. You believe that you have “athlete’s foot” because you have burning and itching along with redness between your toes. You look in your bathroom drawer where all of your medications are kept. You pull out the antibiotic ointment and apply this to the reddened areas. After 3 days of application, you have noticed no improvement. Why is this medicine not working:
    Antibacterial medications are not effective against fungi
  66. Ulcerative colitis is found in the
    Large intestine
  67. A major difference between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis is the presence of this in Crohn disease:
    Skip lesions
  68. Which of the following may make a person more susceptible to getting an infection:
    A final exam week
  69. Your 76-year old uncle is admitted to the hospital for a hip fracture. During his stay on the orthopedic unit, he develops and infection in his surgical wound. This type of infection that develops while a patient is in a hospital is called a:
    Nosocomial infection
  70. Peter has had a cold for the past week. During school he coughs and sneezes. One of his friends, George, also becomes infected with the virus and develops symptoms 1 week later. When considering the chain of infection, the coughing and sneezing was most likely the:
    mode of transmission
  71. George’s exposure to the cold virus occurred when he was with peter. However, George did not experience symptoms of a cold right away. This period of time from the time of exposure until George developed symptoms is called the:
    incubation period
  72. What type of viral hepatitis is transmitted by fecal-oral from another infected person and/or from contaminated food and water supplies:
    Hepatitis A
  73. What class of immunoglobulins are concentrated in bodily secretions such as breast milk, tears and saliva
  74. What is the most common cause of acute gastritis
    Ingestion of aspirin, alcohol or other chemicals
  75. Which of the following is considered diagnostic for AIDS:
    CD4 counts below 200 cells/uL
  76. Which type of hepatitis is most likely to lead to liver cancer:
    Hepatitis B
  77. You are examining a patient which you found to have a positive kernig's sign when you lifted the knee up. You suspect that this patient will have which of the following:
    bacterial meningitis
  78. This phase of an acute infection involves the onset of vague, nonspecific signs and symptoms and is often described as feeling “under the weather”:
  79. Which best describes by yeast infections are common in women on antibiotics
    Destroying one type of resident flora (bacteria) can allow over proliferation of another competing type (yeast)
  80. Your father has a clinic appointment for a possible infection and is told that he has a high neutrophil count. This implies:
    He has an acute infection
  81. In chronic inflammation, extensive scarring is due to:
    Fibroblast activity
  82. Which of the following explains why a low fat diet is recommended for those with hepatitis:
    Fat emulsification and absorption and bile production may be impaired during liver disease
  83. Which is not a major goal of the inflammatory response:
    Form an antigen-antibody response
  84. Fluid movement from within the greatest percentage of what in the extracellular compartment
    Interstitial volume
  85. Hypothalamic sensory neurons that promote thirst when stimulated are called
  86. The most rapid acting buffer system in our body is the
    Plasma buffer system
  87. Mrs white a 45 year old female came into the ER complaining of muscle weakness, cramps, fatigue, and a headache. She has been hiking on the rails during a mild summer day. She drank plenty of plain water to keep herself hydrated. After the initial assessment, dehydration had been ruled out. Ms baker was found to have water intoxication. Water intoxication is also known as
    Hypotonic hypervolemia
  88. It is often said that you should drink 6 to  glasses of water every day to prevent dehydration. What is the most common cause of dehydration
  89. Mr Jones is a 55 year old man with a history of chronic lung disease who came into the er complaining of dyspnea. His arterial blood gas (ABG) shows the following: pH=decrease, PCO2= increase, (HCO3)=increase. What is the altered acid-base balance does mrs. Jones have
    Respiratory acidosis
  90. Jennifer, a 2 year old female, was diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia and was given iron supplements to be taken with orange juice to increase the absorption of iron. Where in the small intestine is the majority of iron (90%) absorbed
  91. You are part of the health care team at a clinic for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Which of the assessments that you perform is focused on recognizing the most common cause for mortality in those with anorexia nervosa
    Cardiovascular assessment
  92. Infants appear normal at birth but begin to manifest progressive weakness, muscle flaccidity, and decreased attentiveness at about 6 to 10 months of age, then followed by rapid deterioration of motor and mental function, often with generalized seizures. Retinal involvement leads to visual impairment and blindness. Death usually occurs before 4 to 5 years of age. What is this disease
    Tay-sach’s disease
  93. An individual who is deficient in this nutrient is likely to present with severe edema such is found in kwashiorkor
  94. Which of the following is a discription of RBC’s in iron-deficiency anemia
    Hypochromic, microcytic, poikilocytotic
  95. Which of the following does not contribute as an energy source in the diet
  96. Those with clinical manifestations for iron-deficiency anemia often present with pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, fatigue, weakness, lightheadedness, breathlessness, palpitations, headache, tachycardia, and syncope. What is the cause of these manifestations
  97. From what major secretory cells in the stomach is the intrinsic factor produced which is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12
    Parietal cells
  98. Type of generalized seizures characterized by involuntary movements of extremities or body but with no change in level of consciousness (LOC)
  99. The current research of the cause of migraine headaches suggests that the inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain presses on nearby nerves causing pain. This inflammation arises from the signals from what cranial nerve
    CN V-Trigeminal nerve
  100. Which of the following is the main pathophysiology causing the clinical manifestation of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
    Abnormal blood vessel growth
  101. Catecholamines, stimulated and released by the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands, are also active in the stress response. Which of the following is not a catechlamine released during stress
  102. What is the reason for excessive thyroid gland stimulation in graves disease
    Antibodies binding to gland receptors
  103. Which hormone pathway is represented by cells in the body that are able to both receive hormone stimulation and secrete the hormone to receptive neighboring cells
    Autocrine pathway
  104. Your family is worried because your cousin has a testosterone deficiency. What clinical manifestations would you notice
    Clear skin, free of acne
  105. It seems that every day you see another commercial for treating erectile dysfunction. What is the mechanism of action for most of these drugs
    Promote trapping of blood in the corporus carvernosa
  106. Which of the following clinical manifestation of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is due to insulin resistance
    Acanthosis nigricans
  107. What main excitatory neurotransmitter in the body can cause excitation injury from the inability of the body to meet the metabolic demands of the cells induced by prolonged action potentials which damages neurons from protein breakdown, free radical formation, DNA damage, and breakdown of the nucleus
  108. Spinal cord lesion in which there is an ipsilateral loss of touch, pressure, vibration and proprioception; contralateral loss of temperature sensations
    Brown-Sequard syndrome
  109. Which of the following describes the damage to neurons due to phagocytosis and inflammatory responses caused by a dead neuron damaging neighboring cells
  110. Brain tumors will likely lead to what type of injury
  111. Which of the following is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to the demyelination of the nerves in the CNS and peripheral nervous system resulting in a chronic deterioration of neurologic function
    Multiple sclerosis
  112. Which of the following manifestations must be present in order to diagnose depression
    loss of pleasure
  113. Cerebral palsy is a group of neuromuscular disorders resulting from damage to what part of the nervous system resulting in spastic paralysis
    Upper motor neuron
  114. Which of the following is a clinical manifestation of hydrocephalus more likely found in an older child or adult
    Impaired motor and cognitive function
  115. What part of the nervous system decreases heart rate, constrict pupils and increased peristalsis in the GI tract, just to name a few, and is also known as the “rest and digest” nervous system
    Parasympathetic nervous system
  116. Classification of cerebral palsy can be based on the type of motor dysfunction or by the anatomy affected. Which of the classifications describes the inability to control balance and coordination
  117. The lobe of the brain with functions of perception, memory and recognition of auditory stimuli is the
  118. Gray matter is composed primarily of
    Cell bodies
  119. When the stimulus is initiated outside of the nervous system, the pain is characterized as
  120. Which of the following proposes the Neuromatrix theory of pain
    Neural network integration of multiple inputs determines pain perception
  121. Mr Madison, a 60 year old male, has been complaining of dull achy pain on the right side of his torso. What type of pain fibers transmits this type of pain
    Type c
  122. What is the leading cause of blindness among older americans in the us
    macular degeneration
  123. Sensorineural hearing loss is
    Often permanent, resulting from disease, trauma or genetic defect in the cochlea nerve cells
  124. What is the hallmark of Meniere disease
  125. Which of the following is a condition of farsightedness associated with aging
  126. Cute little Susan, a 4 year old girl in preschool, has been complaining to her mother that she cannot cross her eyes like the other kids in her preschool class. What main extraoccular muscle moves the eyes inward, towards the nose
    medial rectus
  127. This condition often results from moisture in the ear canal or altered integrity of the skin in the ear canal manifesting as itching, redness and tenderness of the pinna and is often referred to as “swimmer’s ear”
    Otitis externa
  128. Involuntary oscillations of the eye resulting from abnormal function in the brain, labyrinth of the inner ear, and vestibular pathways controlling eye movement is called
  129. Mrs Thompson, a 33 year old female, came into your clinic with complaints of insomnia, general fatigue and musculoskeletal pain for the past 4 months. After taking a thorough history and physical exam you suspect that mrs Thompson may have fibromyalgia. To currently diagnose fibromyalgia there must be at least 3 months of
    Widespread pain
  130. You are stressed about your pathophysiology final exam. What hormone released from the hypothylamus initiates the stress response
    Corticotropin releasing hormone CRH
  131. Which of the following is not a process that leads to Cushing's syndrome
    Ectopic production of ADH
  132. Which of the following is the most serious endocrine disorder because it can lead to severe hypotension, shock and death due to the autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex
    Addison Disease
  133. This condition is due to hypothyroidism in which the child is untreated after birth and thus lack thyroid hormone production and secretion resulting in mental retardation and impaired growth
  134. Your father is told that he has a hormone receptor problem and his cells are not receptive to hormone stimulation why might his receptors not function appropriately
    he has antibodies that are blocking the receptors
  135. What action does excessive ADH secretion have on cellular fluid balance in SIADH
    intracellular fluid retention
  136. Mr Roland, a 33 year old man has exopththalmos. He also experienced weight loss, agitation and restlessness. All of these manifestations are characteristic of
    Graves Disease
  137. Sheila was out walking alone in the dark through the park. When she heard a noise in the bushes, sheila’s heart rate and respiration increased as her body prepared to defend itself. What stage in the general adaptation syndrome is this called
    Alarm stage
  138. The primary mechanism for the regulation of hormone levels in the blood is referred to as the
    Negative feedback loop
  139. Vaginal atrophy in menopause can cause this painful condition
  140. What are the most common clinical manifestations of BPH
    Urinary frequency, incontinence and retention
  141. What clinical manifestations are characteristics of ovarian cancer
    mostly asymptomatic
  142. Whcih of the following is a major risk factor for testicular cancer
  143. Which of the following patients would be hospitalized if diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease
    pregnant patient
  144. Which of the following condition is most likely to be associated with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genes
    ovarian cancer
  145. Your 16 year old niece confides in you that she has not had a period for 2 months. She does not think she is pregnant and denies having sexual intercourse. What is another likely explanation
    severe emotional stress
  146. What problem category of infertility would describe pelvic inflammatory disease
  147. Mrs nelson is a 48 year old female has complained that she has not had her period in 3 months along with complaints of hot flashes, mood swings, and insomnia. She things she may be going into menopause. What lab test must be done first to rule out this cause of her amenorrhea
    pregnancy test
  148. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. What is the mechanism for this?
    Obesity releases fatty acids and cytokines, which interfere with insulin receptors
  149. Billy (12 year old male with type 1 diabetes) comes in to the clinic after 6 months for a follow-up visit. He indicates that his blood sugar has been around 100—120 mg/dL and he has been fully participating in the other aspects of his diabetes management plan. Which would lead you to believe that he has not been in tight control of his diabetes?
    an elevated glycosylated hemoglobin level
  150. Osteoporosis is the result of an imbalance favoring increased:
    osteoclastic activity
  151. Alterations in temperature regulation in the elderly may occur due to:
    mpaired catecholamine-induced vascular responses
  152. Emhysema , chronic bronchitis , asthma and cystic fibrosis are considered obstructive lung diseases because they have difficulty breathing out. Which of the following describes the mechanics of expiration in a healthy person?
    extrathoracic expands and intrathoracic narrows
  153. Early signs and symptoms you would expect a person with type 1 diabetes to exhibit include
    polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue
  154. Peter suffered from an intestinal perforation because of an obstruction. Because of the perforation, Peter is at risk for developing what?
  155. Incontinence caused by exertional stimulus is known as:
    stress incontinence
  156. Which of the following situations of altered perfusion could be triggered by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    ventilation-perfusion mismatching
  157. loss of consciousness with diabetic ketoacidosis is due directly to:
    acidosis effects on the CNS
  158. This term is used to describe period of inadequate cerebral perfusion causing a sudden focal loss of neurologic function but usually lasting only within 24 hours
    transient ischemic attack
  159. Age-related melanin deficiency leads to which one of the following manifestations?
    graying hair
  160. The mechanism for the development of the dawn phenomenon is related to the release of:
  161. Neurofibrillatory tangles are most commonly associated with:
    Alzheimer disease
  162. The presence of epithelial cells in urinary casts indicates which of the following pathophysiologic conditions?
    acute tubular necrosis
  163. your grandmother, a cook at a nearby school, was recently hospitalized when she lost an extensive amount of blood in a work-related accident. She tells you that she heard the nurse say that she would keep feeling faint until her brain made more blood. You recognize that when her blood pressure dropped, the pressure in her carotid arteries decreased. This was detected by baroreceptors in the carotid arteries, which acted then to:
    increase sympathetic stimulation of the heart and blood vessels
  164. Immune function is altered in aging due to:
    reduced t lymphocyte activity
  165. You are the triage nurse that admitted a 21-year-old male to the emergency room with a history of asthma. He is having an acute asthma attack and is wheezing, fighting for air, hypoxic, and afraid. What is the underlying cause of this patient's acute symptoms?
    constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle and air trapping
  166. Which of the following manifestations are more commonly found in chronic bronchitis as compared to emphysema?
  167. Steatorrhea is most commonly associated with:
    malabsortion syndromes
  168. Which measure of ventilation is the maximal amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs with forced inhalation and exhalation?
    vital capacity
  169. Which of the following early signs could alert you to the presence of hypoxia, particularly in children?
  170. In comparing dietary strategies suggested for prevention of both diverticulitis and renal calculi, which one is common to both conditions?
    avoidance of nuts and strawberries
  171. You are examining a patient whose blood pressure is 95/75. What other clinical manifestation do you expect to find in this patient?
    dyspnea, orthopnea, cough
  172. You are examing a patient whose blood pressure is 95/75. What other clinical manifestation do you expect to find in this patient?
  173. Which of the following provides the most objective measurement of renal dysfunction
    Glomerular filtration rate
  174. A characteristic change in stool that may indicate the presence of blood includes which of the folowing
  175. Which of the following diagnostic procedures allows analysis of the entire large colon
  176. which of the following foods should be avoid in people with renal calculi
  177. Which of the following should be avoided in people with diverticular disease
  178. The enteric nervous system component located between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the large intestine
    myenteric plexus
  179. The process by which fecal contents enters the rectum is known as
    mass movement
  180. The average volume of urine eliminated each day totals
    1500 mL
  181. The ______ sphincter is made of skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control.
  182. Urine specific gravity of 1:030 indicates
    concentrated urine
  183. Which of the following diagnostic criteria is consistent with the diagnosis of encopresis
    Age of 5 years
  184. A GFR of 95 mL/min indicates
    normal renal function
  185. Which of the following increases the risk for renal calculi
  186. Which of the following does not affect diffusing capacity
    The volume of air in the atmosphere
  187. Total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material is manifested by:
    Rapid loss of consciousness
  188. A reduced number of erythrocytes (RBCs) in the blood results in the following change in the oxygen saturation (SaO2) of the blood:
    The number of RBCs will not affect the SaO2
  189. Which is a major cause of respiratory failure?
  190. Emphysema differs from chronic bronchitis in that emphysema
    Obstructs the alveoli
  191. You have admitted a 20-year-old male to the emergency room with a history of asthma. He is having an acute asthma attack and is wheezing, fighting for air, hypoxic, and afraid. What is causing these acute symptoms?
    Constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle and air trapping
  192. Which of the following clinical manifestations are related to hypoxemia?
  193. How would you know you have hypoxemia?
    Measure the partial pressure of oxygen in blood
  194. Which of the following can trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome?
    severe lung infection, inhaling toxic fumes, aspirating stomach contents into the lungs
  195. What is the major problem in cystic fibrosis
    Electrolyte and water transport
  196. In evaluating modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for your patient, which one is NOT considered modifiable?
    Female gender
  197. Your patient is experiencing peripheral edema, hepatomegaly, ascites, and splenomegaly. Which of the following conditions would be consistent with the patient’s findings?
    Right-sided heart failure
  198. It is a very hot summer day. Your neighbor stops at your house after jogging 5 miles. She is sweating and tells you she feels dizzy and thirsty and can’t make it home. You check her blood pressure and find it to be LOW. What could you do right in your home to raise her blood pressure?
    Have her drink a large glass of cool water
  199. You neighbor again comes to your door (see previous question). She has been running in the snow and it is very cold outside. She has a headache and her heart is pounding. Again you check her blood pressure and find it to be HIGH. What could you do this time right in your home to decrease her blood pressure?
    Have her lay down on your couch
  200. Which of the following situations of altered perfusion could be triggered by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    Ventilation–perfusion mismatching
  201. Which mechanism increases peripheral vascular resistance and contributes to the development of hypertension?
    Impaired sodium excretion by the kidneys
  202. Which is not a requirement for effective perfusion?
    Absence of chronic disease
  203. Your neighbor tells you that she was in the hospital and they told her she had a bundle branch block. What does this mean?
    She cannot conduct electrical impulses to stimulate the heart ventricle to contract
  204. You are listening to your lab partners heart in skills lab and you hear the “lub dub” sound. What are you hearing?
    The closure of the heart valves
  205. At what point in the cardiac cycle do you measure preload?
    Just before systole
  206. Genetic influences as the major determinants of aging are the focus of which of the following theories?
    Developmental theory
  207. Typical changes in total body water in the elderly include:
    Decreased total body water due to decrease in muscle mass
  208. Immune senescence is characterized by
    Enhanced autoimmune response
  209. Age-related changes affecting neurologic function include:
    Decreased number of neurons
  210. An imbalance in bone remodeling characteristic of osteoporosis is caused by:
    Increased bone resorption due to increased activity of osteoclasts
  211. Age-related changes contributing to impaired healing include:
    Atrophied capillary support to dermis
  212. Parkinson disease is characterized by:
    Lewy bodies
  213. Which one of the following neurotransmitters is deficient in Parkinson disease?
  214. Memory loss in Alzheimer disease results from impaired neural conduction in the:
  215. Which of the following is caused by the release of insulin?
    Decreased blood glucose level
  216. Which of the following is not true of type 1 diabetes?
    Can be treated with oral glycemic agents
  217. Which of the following is not true about type 2 diabetes?
    Significant weight loss occurs as a symptom
  218. Which of the following is not a sign of DKA?
    Low blood glucose level
  219. Which laboratory test is the best predictor of blood glucose control over the previous few months?
  220. Neuropathies are a potential complication of diabetes. Why do these occur?
    Thickening and ischemia of the vessels that supply the nerve fibers
  221. What is the major difference between the Somoygi effect and the dawn phenomenon?
    One is characterized by hyperglycemia that is not triggered by overnight hypoglycemia
  222. What would happen if your patient did not have alpha cells of the pancreas?
    They would not be able to secrete glucagon
  223. What would be an unusual sign in a child that may alert the parent to the presence of diabetes?
    • Bedwetting in a child that was previously dry through the night
    • Irritability
    • Asking for water to drink in the middle of the night
  224. What is your explanation to the parents who do not want to give their child insulin injections to treat type 1 diabetes because they have heard that pills can be used to treat this condition?
    Insulin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract if taken orally, so it must be injected subcutaneously
  225. which of the Developmental Theories of aging states that genes may have beneficial effects during early life but harmful effects as the individual ages
    Antagonistic Pleiotropy Theory
  226. Which of the Stochastic Theories of aging states that intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the final determination of life span
    Free Radical Theory
  227. What are the four primary manifestations of Parkinson Disease
    • tremor
    • rigidity
    • bradykinesia
    • postural instability
  228. Alzheimer Disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and it is most frequent cause of dementia in the elderly. What two histopathologic findings or presence of in the brain characterized Alzheimer Diseas
    • neurofibrillary tangles
    • senile plaques
  229. What 4 parts or tissues of the body in which insulin is not required for glucose uptake
    • brain
    • red blood cells
    • kidney
    • lens of eye
  230. The islets of Langerhans in the pancreas contain three major types of hormone-secreting cells. List the 3 types of cells and the hormone they secrete
    • alpha cells- glucagon
    • beta cells- insulin
    • delta cells- somatostatin and gastrin
  231. Which type of diabetes mellitus is unable to metabolize nutrients because of an absolute or significant deficit of insulin due to cell mediated immune-destruction of beta cells in the pancreas
    insuline deficity type 1 diabetes mellitus IDDM
  232. List the three most common clinical manifestations of type 1 diabetes
    • Polydipsia- excessive thirst
    • Polyuria- excessive urination
    • polyphagia- excessive hunger
  233. Briefly explain and define the differences between Somogyi effect and dawn phenomenon
    • Somogyi effect is the presence of rebound hyperglycemia as a reaction to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
    • Dawn phenomenon is a situation in which an individual's blood glucose level upon waking is higher than the level before going to bed.
  234. Explain the term meconium
    it is the first stool that a newborn will pass after birth
  235. What is the most obvious clinical manifestation of urolithiasis
    Pain that is sever and shooting and is localized in the lateral aspect of the lower back at the CVA
  236. Oral intake after abdominal surgery is slowly resumed after assurance by the presence of thes two things indicating the return of bowel function
    • presence of bowel sounds 
    • passing of flatus
  237. Aside from prolactin, what other 2 types of hormones does the hypothalamus synthesize
    • inhibiting
    • releasing
  238. what is the body's reaction to harmful forces capable of disturbing homeostasis
  239. In the syndrome of inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormorne SIADH, what hormone is being produced and secreted in excess
  240. What is the condition that is due to hypothyroidism in which the child is untreated after birth and thus lack thyroid hormone production and secretion resulting in mental retardation and impaired growth
  241. List the 3 phases of endometrial growth
    • proliferative
    • secretory
    • menstrual
  242. What is menarche
    the time of the first menstrual period
  243. What is dyspareunia
    pain with intercourse
  244. What is cryptorchidism
    a condition of one or two undescended test
  245. What is the process of the movement of air into and out of the trachea bronchi, and the lungs
  246. What is the process in which cells throughout the body use oxygen aerobically to make energy ATP
  247. What is the lipoprotein lubricant secreted by type II alveolar cells that coats the inner portion of the alveolus, promotes ease of expansion and repels fluid accumulation
  248. What is the difference between Hypoxemia and hypoxia
    • Hypoxemia is when there is a decrease in oxygen in the arterial blood leading to a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen
    • hypoxia is where the cells are deprived of adequate oxygen
    • Hypoxemia can lead to hypoxia
  249. Which of the clinical models given in the text is an autosomal recessive disorder of electrolytes and     subsequently water transport that affects certain epithelial cells, such as those lining respiratory, digestive,    reproductive tracts? This disorder leads to the production of excessive and thick exocrine secretions (mucus) leading to obstruction, inflammation, and infection.
    Cystic Fibrosis
  250. What is the process of forcing blood or other fluid to flow through a vessel and into the vascular bed of tissue to provide oxygen and   other nutrients to the cells?
  251. What is the amount of pressure that remains in the aorta during the resting phase of the cardiac cycle?
    Diastolic blood pressure
  252. What is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure called?
    pulse pressure
  253. In both arteries and veins, what three major factors are responsible for thrombus formation that collectively known as Virchow’s Triad?
    • Vessel wall damage
    • Excessive clotting
    • alteration in blood flow
  254. What type of shock is due to ineffective cardiac pumping
    Cardiogenic Shock
  255. What is the study of changes in cells and tissues as a result of injury or disease called?
  256. Define disease
    Disease is the impairment of cell organ, or organ system functioning
  257. What is a dynamic balance in the body marked by the appropriate and effective response to stimuli, thereby    keeping the body in a steady state called.
  258. Give a brief description/definition of each of the following results of cellular adaptation in response to stress.
    • Metaplasia- changing of cell type
    • Atrophy- decrease in cell sized  
    • Hyperplasia- increase in number of cells  
    • Hypertrophy-increase cell size  
    • Dysplasia-change in cell shape, size, uniformity, arrangement and structure
  259. a decreased oxygen suppy to a cell is called
  260. The information within the genes that contain the directions for making a specific protein is called what?
  261. What refers to the presence of three copies of a chromosome in a cell?  Down syndrome is an example.
  262. Define differentiation
    the maturation of a cell to achieve a specific shape and function
  263. What refers to the loss of cell differentiation and therefore the loss of cell function?
  264. Give the 5 local manifestation/ cardinal signs of acute inflammation.
    • redness
    • swelling
    • loss of function
    • pain
    • heat
  265. Name at least one pharmacologic treatment for inflammation.
    Nonsteroidial anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or naproxen
  266. Which healing of intention results in a lower risk for infection with minimal scarring?
  267. Which of the immunoglobulins are concentrated in bodily secretions such as breastmilk, tears and saliva?
  268. Which type of hypersensitivity reaction is IgE mediated and causes an allergic response and if systemic can lead to a life threatening anaphylactic reaction?
    Type 1 Immediate Hypersensitivity
  269. Define pathogen.
    A disease causing microbe
  270. List the 4 mode of transmission for an infection.
    • direct contact 
    • droplet transmission 
    • airborne tranmission
    • vector tranmission
  271. List the 5 phases of an acute infection.
    • exposure
    • incubation
    • prodrome
    • acute clinical illness
    • convalescence
  272. Define speticemia
    microorganisms gain access to the blood on circulate in the body
  273. Aside from prolactin, what other 2 types of hormones does the hypothalamus synthesize?
    • Inhibiting
    • releasing
  274. What is the body’s reaction to harmful forces capable of disturbing homeostasis
  275. In the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH), what hormone is being produced and secreted in excess?
  276. .
Card Set
Patho final