IR 350 Midterm

  1. Spheres of Influence Policy--Churchill and Stalin in Moscow
  2. percentages agreement for Southeastern Europeconcern churchill had was when forces converge, somewhere in Germany, potential for conflict with one another even though they’re allies differences: ideological (communism vs. capitalism)Stalin v. Churchill, Roosevelt. over future of Europe (vacuum of power in Europe, and what will replace that) Churchill wants to work deal w/Stalin (spheres of infuence as to avoid conflicts over who is dominant in parts of Europe)
  3. Spheres of Influence--The Big Three at Yalta
    last wartime conference between themimportant issue; political future of Poland red army is liberating poland, and anglo armies still across continentagree for poland to be ruled by communist gov. agreed that non communist poles (polish gov in exile in london) can be brought back and participate in that gov but will be a minoritypartition of Europe into Eastern, communist, undemocratic and Western, democratic, capitalist
  4. Sovietization of Eastern Europe
    • Americanization of the Western half
    • liberated by British and American army
    • early 1945 still communist parties playing role in western eur. etc;
    • not partition over night
  5. US-USSR Tensions on the Periphery: Iran
    • Iranian Crisis
    • 1945-46Reza Shah intent on preserving independence of country
    • Russia and Great Britain (powers that were encroaching on sovereignty
    • hoped by aligning with Germany he might be able to keep other two countries from interfering with them
    • Russian troops sent into Northern part IranAmerican trooops in Southern Part Iran
    • Throw Shah out, replace with son
    • agreement once war was over british and societ troops would pull out
    • shah of iran one of america’s most trusted allies there until 1979
    • separatist people’s republic of azerbaijan
    • Churchill comes to the US
    • fulton, MO 18946 MarchTurman and Churchill in Fulton
  6. US-USSR Tensions on the Periphery--Turkey
    In late 1945 Stalin proposed Turkey the joint Soviet-Turkish administration of the Straits. Turkey said would infringe on its own independence and security. GB and US supported Turkey’s position. Stalin aadditional claims to the Turkish fiontier districts of Ardahan and KarsStraights really prevent access to the black see Turkey neutral during cold war, becoming increasingly not during
  7. US-USSR Tensions On the Periphery: Greece
    • difficult sit. during WWII
    • end of war, resistance movement appears
    • Greek communist party taking lead in opposition of german occupation
    • greek gov in athens but ver conservative, royalist, anti-communist gov there (pro-western)
    • The Greek Civil War and Foreign Intervention 1944-49
    • seen as communist insurrection
    • civil war that becomes part of the cold warin contrast to what is happening in Turkey (russian pressure on turkish gov)why did stalin not intervene? geographically, Soviet union too far awayGreece eventually becomes close ally with US Iran, possibly coming under soviet unionLondon to Washington: “we must withdraw from Greece"wanted to resist Soviet ambitions in Balkans, British were severely constrained in what they could economically support1947 Britain could no longer afford aid to GreeceUS State Dept. devised plan US assistanceUS Steps In: Truman Doctrineasked 400mil in military and econ. addistance for Greece/Turkey
    • announced Truman Doctrine: to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities/outside pressures
  8. Policy of Containment
    George Kennan long telegram: USSR lives in antagonistic capitalist encirclement (no peaceful coexistence); russia tried to expand; “Mr. X” article: The Sources of Soviet Conduct
  9. European Recovery Plan
    provide econ. assistance to countries threatened by communist exp. in desperate shape economically in europe. George Marshall new secretary of state
  10. The Marshall Plan Speech
    • commencement speech at harvard u. didn’t think was particularly important speech, only audio, no videoJune 5, 1947any gov that willing to assist in recovery = full cooperation from US; any gov tries to block cannot expect help from US “warning” to Russians
    • marshall plan ends up great successs;
  11. Czechoslovakia between East and West
    Multi party system, coalition government, non-communist president, non communist foreign minister, friendly with both super powers The Prague Coupczechoslovakia Feb - June 1948 bloodless revolutiongain control of police, interior dept, parts of gov, etcforce non communist party out of systemsuspicious death circumstance Masyrk, under communist rule
  12. Italian Election Campaign
    Comumunist party: popular with labor, led anti-german resistancechristian democratic party: popular with catholics, leads anti-communist blocwashington and moscow covertly support their favorites the anti communist bloc wins CIA funding christian dem. party, kremlin funds communist
  13. Defection of Yugoslavia
    • marshal tito leader of resistance to german occupation, becomes leader yugoslavia
    • communist independent (not put in power by red army)doesn’t simply take orders from the kremlin 1948 early summer, tito withdraws from soviet orbit (expelled by russian from the Communist Info. bureau ) Yugoslavia becomes anomaly
  14. Nuremberg and denazification
    • war crimes; trials 1946-49
    • ex-post facto law crimes so horrendous needed trial condemnation to death of many collaborativesvictors justice —> judges are all representatives of victorious powers decide fate of the peoplenot completely objective system
  15. Potsdam Conference
    • potsdam conference = decision to treat as single political, economic unit, etc the Inter Allied Occupation Regime decision to divide germany into four occupied zones
    • russia = easter zone; brititsh = western zone; americans= southern zone; berlin itself divided in four parts
  16. Reparations
    • germans done extreme amount damage in soviet union; russians wanted reparations to rebuild
    • “zonal reparations” causes and effects
    • truman mad because germans in their zone starving, etc americans (and some extent british) pouring aid into it meanwhile russia demanding reparations

     byrnes’ stuttgart speech not here to punish you; sets russians off end cooperation US/russia; western zones merge; economic unity french, Amer., british
  17. The anomaly of Berlin
    110 mil w/in soviet occupation people w/in berlin have freedom to move around w/o any restrictions why divide berlin in four sectors? don’t want conflictsberlin because of its symbolic; it was head/center of nazi germany
  18. Why does US want to revitalize German Economy?
    • thought of as engine to EU economic prosperity worried about russians
    • currency reform 1948
    • cigarettes are most commonly used currency in post war Germany 1948
    • 3 western powers plan to introduce a new currency: Deutschmark
    • access routes blocked 1948
    • west berlin appeals to US for helpwestern sector citizens lack food and fuel
    • allied response: The Berlin Airlift
    • 48-49
    • Operation Little Vittles
    • 48-49
    • Colonel Gail S. Halvorsen USAF the famous “Candy Bomber” pilot of the berlin airflow, who dropped parachutes with chocolate goodies to children berlin
  19. The end of the blockade
    • spring 1949
    • Us continued a counter-blockade against Soviety zone while supplying western sectors stalin had choice of continuingg with disastrous policy or calling it off
    •  3 western zones merge together into single state (west germany) and then east germany issued by stalinborders are completely closed (iron curtain)The establishment of West Germany may 23 1949adenauer —> chancellor pro-western establishment east Germany october 7 1949communist party secretary walter ulbricht west germany refuses to recognize east germany and insists that west germany speaks for all german people pending reunification after free elections
  20. Borders of Germany
    poland moves westward russians annexed eastern partmoves west; expels germans from that landoder-neisse line redrawing of bordersreincorporate Sudetenland germans expelled from western poland —> west. germany —> pressured gov for claims against poland West gov. refused to recognize the new border (poland / east germany) polish gov feared germany might revise border
  21. Economic Recovery
    “miracle"germany decimatedstrategic bombing @ city center/pop. heart for psychological Econ. minister Ludwig Erhard steel industry takes lead initially —> Ruhr valleyautomobile industry cars for masses: hitler’s “people’s wagon”
  22. Problems inherited from 1930s
    • absence of an international monetary system breakdown of international trading system
    • gold standard — depository of value (relatively limited supply, indestructible) Britain willing to back the system pound-sterling linked to goldtrade lowering; inconvertibility currency; protectionismimperial preference tariff barrier around British Empire
    • preferential treatment to members of Empire w/in Sterling Block nations use sterling payment, no worries about foreign currency/exchangeFrench pursue the same idea protectionist measures
    • Franc zone
    •  Germany
    • engage in series of barter arrangements
  23. Bretton Woods Conference
    • create new intl econ orderGreat Britain & US dominated
    • Maynard Keynes soviet union has a delegate New International Monetary System fixed exchange ratesthe gold exchange standard the Dollar as Reserve currencyInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) The World Bank (IBRD) building ports, railroads, etc. and mainly euro countries at firstBretton Woods system disintegrates, collapses 1971, 1973 nixon announces US will no longer pledge to exchange gold for dollars, dollars for gold, etc
    • no longer on gold standard
  24. Creating an international trading system
    • 1946
    • newly created Economic and Social council of the UN; called conference to consider creation of International Trade Organization (ITO)
    • Final leg of post war triad IMF
    • World Bank
    • ITO preparatory committee was established to draft ITO 
    • Failure of ITO —> GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) promote tariff-cutting negotiationsresulted in about 45,000 tariff concessions in the meantime ITO failed signed by 23 countries
  25. Importance of GATT
    ranked among greater economic achievements post war era principle non-discrimination in trade relations (applied multilateral basis) same rights of market access extended to all 23 original signing nationsRegional Economic Blocs: Case Western Europemaking sure germany is a good neighbor jean monnet
  26. perfect match —European Coal and Steel Community ECSC 1951
    french iron orewest german coking coal italy joins the talksGasperi connects with Adenauer and Schuman Belgium, Luxembour, Netherlands (Benelux) signs on for few years ECSC very successful, want to try in other sectors of the economy too 1955 negotiations start, 1957 the Ministers of the Six sign the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC, or Common Market) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATON) 1957 FranceW. GErmany italynetherlands belgium luxemb. asked Britain to join, Britain stays out reasons? special relationship w/US Preferential ties to Commonwealth in 1960 Britain forms a rival economic bloc called the European Free Trade Association (EFTA): Britain, Norway, Denmaark, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland) mistake: European economic community takes off UK applies for membership 1963French new Pres. De Gualle wants to keep Great Britain out De Gaulle leaves scene, Britain Reapplies and is admitted Greeceappliesin 1967 military coup and greek colonels ran it to the ground needed to be a democracy, kept out1974 has democracy and admitted 19811986 w/Spain and PortugalThe Maastricht Treaty 1991 reps of 12 Euro countries met in dutch town and developed a single common currency managed by A European Central Bank by jan. 1 2002Finland Sweden, Austria join job migration, language barrier, issues to EEC?need single foreign policy, single national army? national interest too strong Council on Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) : Communist Economic Blocrussians establish own market ^where soviet union can determine economic policies of eastern europe
  27. The Organization of European Defense
    1947 Dunkirk Treaty (France & Great Britain) March 1948: Brussels Treaty (France, Great. Britain, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) basically expanding Dunkirk treaty to those countriesMarch 1948: The Vandenberg Resolution1948-1949 Five Brussels Pact powers open negotiations with the US and Canada, after invite Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, and Portugal to join Formation of an Atlantic Security System April 4 1949 Insecurity on the “Home Front”: The Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europesoviet union very worries about prospect of independent leaders coming to power in eastern euroUS Plan to Control Atomic Energy General Leslie Grove and David Lilienthal
  28. US begins nuclear testing
    an atomic bomb like one dropped on Nagasaki was dropped on Bikini Atoll in Marshall Islands; Stalin angry and wants to acquire one for themselvesRussians a few years later get atomic bomb
  29. China "lost" to communism 1949 Oct. 1
    Mao Zedong proclaims the est. of People’s Republic of China US blames internal communist spies for Soviets & bomb and China’s Communismaccusations of subversion and espionage Alger Hiss respected member of state dept. former communist Whittaker Chambers accused HissWar against "Un-American Actitvities” known as HUAC Hiss case jury finds guilty of perjury for testimony before a congressional committee in 1948 convicted and imprisoned in 1950 communists accused of infiltrating hollywood and subtly promoting pro-communist ideas in those films Klaus Fuchs british scientist sent to US work on atom bomb project in Los Alamos NM gave society courier named Harry Gold in Santa Fe Senator Joseph McCarthy (republican of Wisconsin) informs Women’s Club meeting that he has evidence that there are 205 members of American Communist Party employed by US State Dept mcCarthy broadens the attack
  30. the administration debates how to cope with society threat
    january 31 1950 issued directivestalin had whole army there poised, readyno indications that he was going to attack eastern euro thoughSpring 1950 Turman orders National Security Council and says figure out what threat is and give adviceresult of that study is Genesis of NSC-68completely top secret nobody knows about it NSC-68 Key Goalsdevelop a level of military readiness which can be maintained as long as necessary as deterrent to Soviet aggressionAssure the internal security of the united states against dangers of sabotage, subversion, and espionage Maximize our economic potential, including the strengthening of our peacetime economy and the establishment of essential reserves readily available in the event of war Keep the US public full informed and cognizant of the threats to our national security President needs to figure out how to justify the huge costs of the massive military buildup called for
  31. Cold war turns hot in Korea
    North Korea People’s Army invades South Korea (non communist) looked like all was lost, that South Korea might be overthrown at first motivates Truman to approve NSC 68Korean War and US Rearmament crash program to develop hydrogen bombabandon idea of international control of nuclear weapons substantial increase in conventional military forces replace containment policy with more active policy formation of alliances with friendly foreign countries Korean War and Evolution of NATO 1950-51creation of an integrated command an american General at its head Two US combat divisions sent to Europe US takes charge of the alliance Eisenhower becomes first Supreme Allied Commander Europe HQ located near Paris
  32. Issue of West German Re-armament
    French say no German army but an establishment of an European wide army European uniforms, flags, report to Euro defense minister, etc thinly disperse soldiers so they don’t have idea of nationalism/fighting for Germany itself Germans say they’ll join the EDC (Euro Defense Community) formality comes into place French reject the EDC 1954 (even though they originally proposed it) Reach a Compromise 1954 provides for West Germany to rearm, but it will be brought into NATO, but putting restrictions on itRestrictionsNO German army outside NATONO atomic WeaponsNo Biological weaponsNo chemical weapons W. Germany’s New ROleThe Allied occupation regime comes to an endThe West German The Soviet Union Responsmay 1955The USSR summons reps of the Eastern Euro states to Warsaw where they sign the Warsaw Pact
  33. New Man in the Whitehouse
    Jan. 1953Eisenhower his sec. state is John Foster Dulles Dulles promise protection to US allies across the globe critique of over extending US powernew look in US defense policy : “massive retaliation” soviet don’t have method of delivery for bombso dulles announces massive retaliationunleash american nuclear
  34. Global Blocs and the Arms Race
    Strategic Air Command B-29 bomber replaced by B-52 in 1950 (?)John Foster Dulles “Brinksmanship” willing to go to brink/verge of war nuclear deterrence, threatening with massive retaliation to prevent it The End of American Invulnerability sputnik —> first nation in world to send man made satellite around world could now reach american territory, ICBM race to close the missile gap sputnik huge embarrassment (falling behind russians) Campaign for Civil Defense protect american people from consequences of nuclear war fallout shelters
  35. Death of Joseph Stalin
    5 Mar. 1953“doctors plot” some think KGB chief Beria may have poisoned the chief who replaces him? soviet union does not have normal mechanism for succession“collective leadership” isn’t strongman yetMalenkov PM Khruschev —> first secretary communist party “Thaw” in East-West Relations 53-56signsarmistice in Korea 1953new leadership pressures NK in accepting armisticearmistice in Indochina1954French Indochina (laos, cambodia, ) soviet withdrawal Porkkala Naval Base, west of Helsinki, was leased to USSR for 50 yrs1955 signed new agreement returning it to find land in 1956Soviet WithdrawalAustria 1955 Austrian State Treaty four occupation forces withdrawaustria totallyy independentAustria must remain perpetually neutral (no alliance) First Summit Conference Geneva, July 1955big four first time american pres. meets soviet counterpart in 10 yrsEisenhower Open Skies Proposalmutual aerial surveillance of defense installation of both superpowersUSSR rejects it as violation of national sovereignty Next year 1956 Eisenhower authorizes flights US spy plane—>was an  attempt to discuss / find workable deal
  36. Speech that shocked the world
    Khrushchev Feb. 1956 dedicated to “prospects for peaceful coexistence” now that both have nuclear weapons, if war ever happens it will be nuclear, and nobody wins in that warrethink Marxist/leninist/stalinist mantra have to live with capitalist west (not overthrow/destroy it) orders guards to lock doors, now has second speech “secret speech” deounces Joseph Stalinsays he was autocrat, terrible influence, pursued cult of personality Stalinism had nothing to do w/marxism or leninism doesn’t remain secretleaked front page NY Times pits old line communists against reformists
  37. models of de-stalinization: warsaw and budapest
    Poland: old hardline stalin gov overthrownreplaced by leader Gomulka (who had been jailed earlier in career for Tito-ism …seen as not completely committed to Communism/Soviet Catholic Church in Poland is very powerful; in communist country Khrushchev flies to Warsaw, debates Gomulka whop picked him up @ airportG reassures that he is communist and Poland will remain loyal ally etcHungary one of last countries to fall under domination of sovietconflict between hardline stalinists and reformists Imre Nagy takes control criticism of soviet union itself Nagy proceed to commit mistakes: announces his country will hold multi party elections (communist party will compete) announces Hungary will withradw from Warsaw Pact and resort to pact Absolute Neutrality red army to crush the revolutioncommunism in general lost a lot of standing in eastern euro, etckrush. insists on end berlin occupation problem because communism in east germany
  38. Problems West Berlin
    undergoing economic revival east german getting negative view of communism and good view of capitalism can work wherever you wantKhrushchev issues ultimatum in 19?need to find solution to berlin problem or will turn over control of border controls to east germany talks to richard nixonopportunity to meet b/c of trade fair in NYC seeing how advanced american capitalism“the Kitchen Debate” “model american home” nixon = “look at all appliances, have all of the conveniences” Krushchev won’t acceptkhrushchev first russian leader in history to go to US meet about berlin problem“put on ice” for a yearagreement to hold a summit conference in Paris in spring 1960Krush. invites Eisenhower to return the visit to Soviet Uni
  39. Rise of Non-aligned bloc
    many countries decide not to go in either direction ( neither soviet or US) most coming from former colonial Bandung Conference 1955 Sukarno sets in motion the movement term “third world” emerges from three major leaders Gamal Abdel NasserNehru Tito issue in 1960 when number of countries in africa gain independenceKremlin’s Campaignrecognized this trend wanted to appeal to third world countries to gain influence over them undertake to travel to a number of those countries to win support (when JFK elected he takes up the cause too)
  40. Anglo-arab alliance
    1916-1918Sharif Hussein bin Ali last of Hashemite Sharifians that ruled over Mecca, Medina launched great arab revolt in June 1916 against Ottoman army in exchange for promised Arab stateHussein McMahon Correspondence July 1915 to March 1916promised arab stateBritish beneficiaries of End of AN Empire British forces liberate Jerusalem 1917, Nov.
  41. zionist movement
    1896 Budapest-born Theodor Herzl published a brochure called The Jewish State (Der Judenstaat) in 1897 he was elected as the first president of the World Zionist Organization in Basel, Switzerland Dreyfus affair; jewish officer in French army unjustly accused of treason stripped of uniform, convicted,
  42. British support zionism
    Chaim Weizmann head of Jewish Agency Arthur James Balfour British Foreign Secretary “it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine” —> letter from Foreign office Nov. 2, 1917British trying to satisfy everybody British made in Palestine 1920 to 1948“home” to jewish people majority of people living palestine not jewish Preparations for an Arab Palestine Palestinian delegation in London try to get Balfour dec. abolishedHaj Amin al-Husseini Grand Mufti of Jerusalem leading charge against it1925 founding of Hebrew University Jewish immigration from Europefrom russia, poland, czech, etcHitler takes over in Germany 1933 originally allowed, even encouraged, German Jews to emigrate. many chose to head for Palestinestrict immigration laws in place by most other countries Two decades offconflict1919-1939arab-jewish conflictBritian sends Lords to Investigate Lord Peel arrives 1936 to conduct study of problemproposes two solutionsJewish stateBritish ControlArab State
  43. Britain's last plan: the White papers 1939
    rejected idea of partition—> new policy single unitary Palestine stateJews promised could build a center for people but not create a Jewish stateFurther Jewish immigration restricted severely zionists demand a Jewish State  —> Biltmore Declarationrejects white paper calls for fulfillment of original purpose of balfour declarationfirst public demand for creation of “Jewish Commonwealth"Demand that “the gates of Palestine be opened” and that Jewish Agency be given control over immigration to Palestine and authority over “uncultivated lands” of the countrywar comes to an end full extend of nazi comes to public eyeorganization of a Jewish army to fight on their behalf Haganah (of zionist movement?)
  44. Zionist faction
    on the left: labor zionism David Ben-Gurion: leader o the Labor Zionismthinks will be able to get along with eachother eventually On the right: The Irgun (Zionist Revisionism) Menachem Begunno compromisecreate as big of Jewish state as possible resort to terrorismbombed the King David Hotel (British headquarters) in 1946 in April 1948 group of Irgun militants massacred over 120 Palestinian civilians in the village of Deir Yassin between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem four days later enraged Arabs responded by slaughtering 78 Jewish health workers heading for a hospital in JerusalemPalestinians prepare for battleBritian dumps Palestine Problem in New UN Organization
  45. UN Partition Plan
    Nov. 1947 UN General Assembly votes to partition Palestine into 2 statesProposed Jewish State: 498,000 Jews 407,000 Arabs Proposed Arab State725,000 Arabs and 10,000 Jews Jerusalem UN monitoredThe Jewish Agency accepted the partition, but the Arab states rejected it British leave area15 May 1948fighting broke out in Jerusalem’s streets
  46. Creation of Jewish State
    May 14 1948 US grants De Facto Recognition george marshall opposed to the recognitionSoviet Union Grants De Jure Recognition
  47. Arab states respond
    King Farouk of Egypt King Abdullah of jordan jordan has larges army —> Arab Lejion First Arab Israeli War 1948-1949all arab states involved israel wins war decisively each arab army on its own, no central control or organization UN Mediates  a Ceasefire representative Count Bernadotte is assassinated by a Zionist extremist group American Ralph Bunche takes over the armistice negotiations completed in 1949 Israel enlarged by military gains when armistice signed
  48. Palestinian Exodus
    over 50% of Arab population of the territory of the new Jewish state fled in 1948-1949Remembered by Palestinians as the Nakba (“catastrophe”) those who left would not be able to come back Where did Palestinian refugees end up?most settle in Gaza Strip, southern Lebanon, West Bank, and JordanAbsentee Property Law in Israel confiscates refugees’ property, redistributes to Jewish refugees Jordan only Arab state to give citizenship to all Palestinian refugees the controversy over the “right of return” refugees not granting refugees citizenship, except Jordan 1950s Palestinian guerrilla groups organize in The Gaza Strip and the West Bank and conduct Raids against Israel
  49. Suez Canal
    an agreement between egypt and britain provided for British withdrawal by June 1956but gave britain the right to occupy the zone if the canal’s security was threatened Liberator of the Arabs — Nasser Remove british power from egypt hep  the algerian revolt vs franceliberate palestine Economic development Plans He obtained a loan from the World Bank to build a dam on the Nile river in Aswan US and Britain pledged also to help finance the project 1955Washington Reneges on the Deal 1956Dulles says won’t come up with money Great britain pulls outWrold Bank pulls out The Suez Canal Nationalized nationalization took the world by surprise especially the british and French stockholders who owned the canal companynasser promised the company would be compensated for loss, the are paid in egyptian bonds rather than own currency egypt/great britain/france in the struggle over itBritain Challenged british prime minister anthony eden and colonel nasser The Reaction in Paris 1956; French Premier Guy Mollet denounces Nasser for harboring Algerian terrorists; also compares him to hitler Reaction in Tel Aviv palestinina guerrilla groups organize in the gaza strip and the west bank and conduct strikes against Israel (Israel thus has problems w/Nasser)nasser prohibits israeli ships from using canal
  50. Suez Canal--the secret plan
    nobody knows about israel will attack egypt(across sinai) towards suez canal GB and France will announce there must be immediate ceasefireif don’t agree to it, GB & France will send forces to protect the canal
  51. Suez War
    july 26: egypt nationalizes suez canaloctober 29 israel attacks egypt across sinaioctober 31: france and briatn attacke Egypt under pretext of “separating” the two armiesegypt responds by sinking the 40 ships located in canal at the moment, rendering it unusuableanglo french landing: at egyptian ports along canal soviet threat: bulganin (PM RUssia) sent a letter which threatened russina “rocket attacks” on london Eisenhower resented that israel, france, and great britain secretly planned itforces all three to withdrawNasser turns to moscow aswan high dam financed w/help of sovietsAswan Dam today the dam stretches across river’s path rcompletely removed historical objects from area so it would be flooded and destroyed hydroelectric power
  52. Eisenhower Doctrine
    US will assist any nation in Middle East to develop econ strength for national independenceprovide programs military assistance if requesteduse armed forces to protect territorial integrityfor any nation controlled by international communism
  53. New King Faisal II
    uncle ruled as regent from 1939-1953 until he could takeoverhashemite familycoup death the young king and most of his family were killed by conspirators in Baghdad 195823 years old at death
  54. Iraq and Lebanon
    Iraq becomes a “republic” (military dictatorship”)new leader Brigadier Abdul Karim KassemLebanese Government Under Fire 1958Maronite Christians dominated the government while the Muslims (over 50%) feld excludeed chamoun was suspected of illegally prolonging his stay to keep control in Christian Muslims outraged “power sharing phenomenon” president always maronite christianTKTK always shi'amarine land as marine tank enters beirutUS fears nasserism entering therehad not been involved in middle east before this period
  55. Jordan a British Client State
    created by britishgains independence in 1946retains strong influence in the kingdom King Abdullah assassinated in Jerusalem 1951Kng Talal beocomes Ill (new king)replaced because of mental illnessson King Hussein was 19 years old when he succeeded his father sent for his senior studies to England marries an english woman “british as you can get"british marines in jordan in 1958  because Hussein convinced Nasser was out to invade
  56. British Marines in Kuwait
    grants independence 1961 Iraq claimed that Kuwait was part of his country and announced he would annex it Kuwait appealed to britian and Saudi Arabia for aid British troops successfully deterred Iraw from attacking
  57. Chiang Kai Shek; Mao Ze Dong
    US backs Chiang “china is one of the ‘four policemen’” may-ling song (madame chiang kai shek) promotes nationalist chinese cause in US during WWIIChampion of Nationalist chinason of missionaries in chinadevout christiandevout anti-communistadmirer of change and madame henry luce, publisher of time magazine time magazine has number of people in china reporting on it general stilwell loses faithaccueses chiang regime of nepotism corruptionsquandering US aid poor military strategy
  58. Mao at Yennan and Dixie Mission
    mao and his close collaborator Zhou Enlai “Dixie Mission"yen autumn 1944sent a US military unit to see what mao is up to to help the communists rescue downed american flyers and to lay groundwork for a rapproachement between communists and nationalist Hurley arrives US ambassador to gov of China Patrick Hurley goes up to yenan
  59. Bridging the Gap 1944
    attemps for the dif groupsafter aug 1945 japanese surrender, hurley tries to arrange cooperation between CCP and KMT hurley has already taken a dislike to two communist leaders, referring to them as  ‘moose dung’ and ‘joe n. lie’
  60. Soviet Army liberates manchuria
    • summer 1945soviets turn over captured japanese arms to mao soviet forces evacuate manchuria in 1946 leaving mao’s forces in patrol
    •  hurley resigns in protest
    •  hurley abruptly resigned in nov 1945
    • he accuses US foreign service officers in China of undermining Chiang’s government
  61. US Drastically reduces aid to China
    state dept. issues white paper on chinadesigned to refute charges from the “china lobby” in US that the communists were winning in china b/c of Truman admin abandonment of Shek’s regimeChian Kai shek escapesdec. 1949gov claiming to rule on formats (his gov) “people’s republic of china” by mao on mainlandbritain first big country recognizes PRC why? hong kong“loss” of China denounced john stewart service and senator joseph mcCarthy
  62. Mao turns to Stalin
    in need of military and economic aid, mao seeks stalins help. feb 1950 the chinese and the soviet union sign a mutual defense treaty that also guarantees aid for china mao prepares to invade and reclaim the lost provincebuild up chinese military forces along coast opposite formosa (taiwain)
  63. Korean War...(Rise Republic China)
    ruman sends 7th fleet (in pacific HQ japan) to interpose itself between taiwan and chinachinese interventionoctober 1950 chinese “volunteers” heading for battle front in korean war US pledges to defend taiwan 1951chaing kai shek as ruler in the republic of china (taiwan) nationalist regime on taiwan keeps chinese permanent seat on UN security council strong alliance chiang, dulles, Taiwan straits crisis august 1954 feb. 1953 Eisenhower lifted the US navy blockade of taiwan which had prevent changes force from attacking mainland chinachinese army launched artillery attacks on the offshore island of query after US lifted its blockade, making possible Nationalist attack on china
  64. Moscow-beijing axis
    1950-1960 nikita khrushchev and Mao Ze Dongpersonality diff?sources of conflictmoscows lukewarm support for beijing during query crisis kruschevs policy of “peaceful coexistence” with the westChina’s ambition to join the nuclear club
  65. Vietnam Liberated
    japanese forces evacuatenationalist chinese forces receive the Japanese surrender in NorthBritish forces receive surrender in S. Ho declares Vietnam independent sep. 2 1945vietminh take control of the city of Hanoiprocalim indep. of Republic of VietnamBritish forces in South allow French colonial forces to return The US backs France1954 US paying 80% french war effortend of indochina war
  66. The Geneva Conference Opens
    dulles comes and goes laos and cambodia independent statesvietnam: temporarily divide into two at 17th parallel; Ho Chi Minh take power Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the North US backs south vietnam The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) USUKFranceAustraliaNew ZealandThailandPhilippines Pakistan
  67. 1945
    USSR occupies northern Korea to receive the Japanese surrender US occupies southern Korea for the same purpose
  68. Kim Il Sung ... Acheson
    Kim Il Sung installedwhen korea liberated from Japanese rule on August 15 1945 an officer in combined unit of Chinese and Koreans was picked by Far East Command of the Soviet Unions KGB to represent Societ interestAcheson speaks to the national press club1950us pledge to defend off shore island kim il sung decides now is time to unify korea (by force)
  69. South Korea Invaded
    military assault across 38th parallel. using soviet built tanksNK occupies Seoul and drives to South Korean Army port of Pusansouth korean army in disarraytruman responds UN security council acts; soviet seat emptydenounces NK for aggressionauthorizes est. of UN army to repel aggressionUS counter attackus tenth army ands at Inchon, the port of seoul drives the NK army out of SK with authorization from the UN General Assembly, MacArthur’s forces cross 38th parallel drive into NK and approach the Chinese border captures Pyongyang China intervenes autumn 1950 Chinese “volunteers” cross over US/UN forces retreat; china occupies seoul us counter attack, drives northwar of attrition; stalemate; US people getting tired of war
  70. Next Step: Korea
    US leadership dividedTruman says has to do what staff, etc. say MacArthur advocating for overt military actionsMacArthur fired The POWs Issuebring in neutral countries to question the guys if they wanted to go back to China/NK etc Voluntary RepatriationKorea: “The Forgotten War” armistice signed: July 27 1953no peace treaty very bloody war few border rectifications, but essentially same after the war as before
  71. India
    gains its independence from britain 1947problem of religious diversity Muhammed Ali Jinnah refuses to compromise on issueBritish lord managed negotiations tries to find a way to bring two sides together and can’t decision to divide british india into two predominantly indaipredominantly muslim Pakistanresult of partition is catastrophe ethnic cleansing with a vengeance muslims in india trying to get to pakistan, vice versa, and lots of killings happen pkashmir provincespecial caseunique because when british prep to leave the map makers ruler of kashmir is Hindu but most of subjects are muslim chooses to be independent rather than get in pakistan sends guerilla fighters to take region then accepts annexation into india kashmir only state in india with majority muslim India become as leader the third world between the two superpowersunder Nehru
  72. Defeat and Unconditional Surrender: Japan
    G.I.s landMacArthur flew into Atsugi on Aguust set up temp headquarters SCAP: Supreeme Command of Allied PowersGen. MacArthur becomes the head The emperor kept in power after defeat, allies stripped hirohito of power, but allowed him to retain his tittle as a symboltakes away claim to deityInternment of Japanese-Americans (1942-45)west coast statesput in relocation campsRemains of Japan’s war machine were destroyed. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrenderaccused Japanese war criminals trials were held by Allies in Tokyo"victors justice” —> not impartial judicial proceedingCase of Yamashita accused war criminal under arrest comfort women
  73. Era of American Occupation, Japan
    no other allies, American occupationrun by Gen. MacArthurenormous amount of freedom to maneuver and do what he wants therenot going to be insurrection (great surprise) fraternization with civiliansUS Economic Aid Arrives 1945-51MacArthur Orders a Constitution the Constitution had 3 pillars: renunciation of war sovereignty in the people (with the Emperor as symbol of nation) Abolition of Feudalistic Family System (or Equality of Sexes) Beate Sirota Gordon she writes article 14 of Japanese constitution age 22 much more powerful endorsement of gender equality than the US has japanese women right to vote 1947Results of New Constitution Peace treaty restores national sovereignty 1951 PM Yoshida Shigeru John Foster DullesDean Acheson Korean War jump starts economy
  74. Japan Economic "Take-off"
    japan first country in asia to experience phenomen. econ. take offautomobile industry v importantDispute with USSR the Kurile island US refuses to allow the USSR to do so USSR gets hold of archipelago though adds to anti-communist/anti-soviet mentalityJapanese “Self Defense Force” Created 1954the national police reserve est. 1950 as replacement for american troops that were used in korean wartransformed into the Self Defesne Force (SDF) by Japanese gov 1954US acquires base port of Yokosuka used as port for Seventh Fleet acquires base on Japanese island of Okinawa in 1951 restored to Japan in 1972 base remained Debate over Security Treaty security commitment on part of US continues down to end of 1950s/beginning 1960streaty comes up for re-negotiation/renewal uproar in Japan (leftist parties)
Card Set
IR 350 Midterm
IR 350 midterm