What are the major types of carbohydrates?
- Nutritive Sweetener
- Non Nutritive Sweetner
Examples food sources for each type of carbohydrate.
- Starch - Plant based foods - such as legumes, tubers and the grains used to make breads, cereals, and pasta.
- Fiber - grains, legumes, and tubers
- Nutritive Sweetener - HFCS, Sugars (lactose, maltose, glucose), Sugar Alcohols (Sorbitol, Mannitol) - Impart sweetness to foods, which can be metabolized to yield energy.
- Non-Nutritive Sweetener - Aspartame, Sucralose, Saccharin - imparts sweetness to food, but provides no food energy.
list the functions of carbohydrates in the body
- Provides Energy - glucose,a source of energy for body cells.
- Sparing Protein as a Energy - preventing the breakdown of muscle to use as energy.
- Promoting Bowel Health - adds bulk to the feces, making bowel movements easier.
- Reducing Obesity Risk - a diet high in fiber aids weight control & reduces the risk of accumulating body fat.
- Enhancing blood glucose control.
- Reducing Cholesterol Absorption
Describe the different types of fiber and their role in human health
- Soluble and insoluble fiber.
- Fiber prevent constipation, and diverticular disease, enhances the management of body weight ,blood glucose levels, and blood cholesterol levels.
Identify the different forms of fats (3)
How are Trilycerides digested, transported, and stored within the body
- Digested: in the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine, the presence of fat triggers the release of cholecytokin (CCK)form intestinal cells. CCK stimulates the release of bile and pancreatic enzymes. Bile emulsifies (break triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids) fat & allows enzymes to efficiently.
- Transported: via Chylomicrons & VLDL; Chylomicrons carry absorbed fat to body cells. VLDL carries fat taken up from the bloodstream by the liver, as well as any fat made by the liver, to body cells
- Stored: insulating layer of fat just beneath the skin.
Triglycerides - 95% of the fats we eat and 95% of the fat stored in the body(this form)
How are Phospholipids digested, transported, and stored within the body
- Digested: mostly small intestine, phospholipase enzymes from the pancreas & enzymes form the small intestine break phospholipids into their basic parts.
- Transported: in the blood as lipoproteins called chylomicrons. Lipoporotiens have a core, made of lipids, that is covered with a shell composed of protein, phospholipds and cholesterol .
- Stored: Liver
- Function: Cell Membrane Component [The heads orient themselves to form the cell membrane's outside edge (heads (hydrophilic phosphate) facing outward in contact with the water & tails (hydrophobic) extending into the cluster away from the water.] & Emulsifier (is a compound that forms a shell around fat droplets, so that the droplets can be suspended in water and not clump)
How are Sterols digested, transported, and stored within the body
- Digested: Cholesterol esters are broken down to broken down to cholesterol and free fatty acids by a pancreatic enzyme cholesterol esterase.
- Transported: by LDL Lipoproteins, caries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells. The receptor pathway for cholesterol uptake removes LDL from the blood, breaks it dow & uses the component parts for maintaining the cell membrane or synthesizing compounds. Oxidized LDL is removed from the blood by the scavenger pahway for cholesterol uptake. Over time, cholesterol builds up in the scavenger cells. When scavenger cells have collected & deposited cholesterol for many years at a heavy pace, plaque builds up on the inner blood vessel walls. HDL roams the blood stream, grabbing cholesterol from dying cells & other sources, & donates cholesterol to other lipoproteins for transport back to the liver to be excreted.
- Stored: Scavenger cells collect and deposit cholesterol for many years, plaque builds up on the inner blood vessel walls.
Discuss health concerns related to fat intake and identify strategies for modifying total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat intake
- Decrease uses of added fats - such as butter on breads, shortenings used to make cookies, pastries and fried foods.
- Decrease intake of Saturated Fats- Dairy products, beef, chicken, mayonnaise, and margarine are the main contributors of saturated fat.
- Decrease intake of Trans Fats - sources are margarine and baked goods made with shortening, such as cakes, cookies, crackers, pies and breads.
- People get too much saturated fat & too little monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
What are Essential Amino Acids?
Amino acids that can't be synthesized
in the body.
9 essential AA: (TTH-LIP-VLM)
What are Nonessential Amino Acids
made by our bodies
, using other amino acids we consume
- 11 nonessential AA: (STAG-PAAC-BAG)
- Glutamic acid
- Aspartic acid
Define high quality and low quality proteins and list examples of each
High Quality(Complete) Protein - means that they can be easily converted into body proteins. Proteins that contain ample amounts of all 9 essential amino acids. Egg-white protein, milk
Low Quality(Incomplete) Protein – food protein that lacks enough of 1 or more of the essential amino acids to support human protein needs. (pg. G-14). Plant based proteins
Calculate the RDA for protein for a healthy adult with a given body weight of 125lb (woman)
1st. Convert weight from lbs to kg:
125 lbs ÷ 2.2 lbs/kg = 57kg
Next Calculate RDA by using the RDA for protein - 0.08g/kg body wt.:
57kg × 0.08 g/kg = 46g
Describe the symptoms and treatment of food allergies
- most allergic reaction are mild, such as runny nose, sneezing, itching skin, hives, or digestive upset
- severely allergic, decreased blood pressure and respiratory distress so severe that the person can't breathe, is is call Anaphylactic Shock.
What are Monosaccharide?
Class of single sugars that are not broken down further during digestion
Examples - Glucose, fructose, galactose, sugar alcohols and pentoses
What are Disaccharides?
Class of sugars formed by the chemical bonding of 2 monosaccharides.
Examples - maltose, sucrose, and lactose
What are Polysaccharides?
Class of complex carbohydrates containing many glucose units, from 10 to 1000 or more.
Examples- starch, glycogen and fiber
What is a Sugar Alcohol?
Nutritive sweeteners used in sugarless gum and candies. Are not readily metabolized by bacteria in the mouth, doesn't promote cavities.
examples - sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol
What are Digestible Polysaccharides?
Polysaccharides that are digestible
- Starch – the major digestible polyaccharide in human diet, is the storage form of glucose in plants.
- Glycogen – the storage form of carbohydrate in humans and other animals
What are Indigestible Polysaccharides?
- Lignin, Cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums and mucilage Cellulose, hemicelluloses & Lignins form the structural part of the plant cell wall in vegetables and whole grains.
- Pectin, gums and mucilages are more readily digested by the intestinal bacteria.
Insoluble vs. soluble fiber
- Insoluble Fibers – Fibers that are not easily dissolved in water or metabolized by bacteria in the large intestine; include celllose, some hemicelluloses and lignins
- Soluble Fibers – fibers that dissolve in water and can be metabolized(fermented) by bacteria in the large intestine; inculde pectin, gums and mucilages; also called viscous fibers – makes them useful for thickening jam, jelly, yogurt and other food products.
What is Glycemic Index?
Give examples of low & high GI foods.
A ratio of the blood glucose response of a given food compared with a standard (typically, glucose or white bread)
- Low GI foods – milk, yogurt, apple
- High GI foods – potatoes, breads, honey, jelly beans
What is a Lipoprotein?
Compound, found in the bloodstream, containing a core of lipids with a shell composed of protein, phospholipid and cholesterol.
- Chylomicron – carries dietary fat from the small intestine to cells
- VLDL(very-low density lipoprotein) – carries lipids both taken up and made by the liver to cells
- LDL (low-density lipoprotein) – carries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells
- HDL(high-density lipoprotein) – helps remove cholesterol from cells and, in turn, excrete cholesterol from the body
What is Plaque?
Cholesterol-rich substance deposited in the blood vessels. It contains white blood cells, smooth muscle cells, connective tissue (collagen), cholesterol and other lipids, and eventually calcium.
What are Trans-fatty acids?
Form of unsaturated fatty acids in which the hydrogens on both carbons forming that double bond lie on opposite sides of that bond (trans config.).
Margarine, shortenings and deep fat frieds foods are rich sources.
What are Fatty Acids?
Chain of carbons chemically bonded together & surrounded by hydrogen molecules. These hydrocarbons are found in lipids and contain a carboxyl (acid)
Name 3 types of Fatty Acids
- Monounsaturated (MUFA) – fatty acid containing 1 carbon-carbon double double bond
- Polyunsaturated (PUFA) - fatty acid container 2 or more carbon-carbon double bonds
- Saturated (SFA) – fatty acid containing no carbon-carbon double bonds.
Essential fatty acids (EFAs)
Fatty acids that must be supplied by the diet to maintain health.
Only linoleic acid and alpha-linoleic acid are classified as essential.
Can be found in Salmon, tuna, soybean oil, corn oil
What are Amino Acids?
Building block for proteins, containing a central carbon atom, an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and a side group.
hormone-like compounds synthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid.
- Called local hormones because unlike typical hormones, they are made and used in the same area of the body.
- Within this class of compounds are prostacyclins, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
- Examples: prostacyclins, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
Explain the difference between a simple carbohydrate and a complex carbohydrate and provide examples for each.
Simple carbohydrates – composed of 1 or 2 sugars; Monosaccharides & Disaccharides. Examples – Disaccharides - sucrose, lactose, maltose; Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose, galactose
Complex Carbohydrates – made of many monosaccharide molecules Examples – glycogen, starch and fiber
Describe the three classes of fatty acids. Which will be liquid at room temperature and why?
Fatty acids – chain of carbons chemically bonded together and surrounded by hydrogen molecules. These hydrocarbons are found in lipids and contain a carboxyl (acid). The carbon chain shape and long length determine if the fat is solid or liquid at room temperature.
- Polyunsaturated (PUFA) - 2 or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Liquid at room temperature. Kinked carbon chains (cis and trans) do not pact tightly together - liquid at room temperature.
- Monounsaturated (MUFA) – fatty acid containing 1 carbon-carbon double bond. Kinked carbon chains (cis and trans) of do not pact tightly together, liquid at room temperature.
- Saturated (SFA) – containing no carbon-carbon double bonds. Long carbon chain saturated fats - solid at room temperature. Medium short chain saturated fats - soft or liquid at room temperature.
Evaluate your total and saturated fat intake based on your completed food records. How many grams of total and saturated fat do you consume on average on a daily basis? What percent of your total calories is contributed by your total and saturated fat intake?
- Total Fat Average: [48.5+55.86+61]/3 days = 55.12 gram of total fat/day
- Total Saturated Fat Average: [18.0+27+19.5]/3 days = 21.5 grams of sat. fat/day
- Total Fat/Total Calorie % = [27+28+34]/3 days = 30%
- Total Fat/CaloriesTotal Sat. Fat/Total Calorie % = [15+10+10]/3 days = 11.67 = 12% Sat. Fat/Calories
Name six food sources of essential fatty acids. Do you commonly eat any of these foods?
6 sources of EFAs: Salmon, sardines, flaxseed, beef , poultry and corn oil. Yes, I do include these foods in my diet.
How does the glycemic index differ from the glycemic load?
Glycemic Index (GI) - a ratio of the blood glucose response of a given food compared with a standard (typically, glucose or white bread).
Glycemic Load (GL) – takes into account the GI and the amount of carbohydrate consumed, so it better reflects a food’s effect on blood glucose than does the GI alone.
Calculate your RDA for protein using page 236 as your guide. Compare this result to your intake from one day of your food diary. If your intake is too low or too high, how could your diet be adjusted?
- Based on Day 1, 73 grams, I am a little low on protein. I think I can increase eating legumes (beans), I can meet my protein requirement.
What are complementary proteins and provide examples of each?
Complementary proteins – 2 food protein sources that make up for each other’s inadequate supply of specific essential amino acids.
Together, they yield a sufficient amount of all 9 and provide high-quality (complete) protein for the diet. Nuts & Seeds combines with a legume; Rice & Beans (grain with legume); Hummus and pita bread.
What are the symptoms of food allergies?
most allergic reaction are mild, such as runny nose, sneezing, itching skin, hives, or digestive upset severely allergic, decreased blood pressure and respiratory distress so severe that the person can't breathe, is is call Anaphylactic Shock.
Which foods cause most food allergies?
The Big 8: peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, soy and wheat.
Other foods frequently identified as causing allergic reactions are meat and meat products, fruits and cheese.
What steps can parents take to help prevent food allergies in children?
- Feed babies only breast milk or infant formula until they are at least 6 months old.
- Delay feeding infants cow’s milk and milk products until infants are at least 1 year of age.
- Serve egg whites only after children reach age 2 years.
- Keep diets free of peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shelfish until children are at least 3 years old.