sociology social structure and demographics

  1. macrosociology
    focuses on large groups and social structure, whereas micro sociology refers to small groups and individuals
  2. functionalism
    • study of each part of society
    • to work in harmony, each part and system must work together
    • dysfunctions (harmful consequences of people's actions) undermine societal equilibrium
  3. manifest function
    • intended to help some part of system¬†
    • latent function: unintended positive consequences on other parts of society
  4. conflict theory
    how power differentials are created and how these differentials contribute to the maintenance of social order
  5. symbolic interactionism
    • ways individuals interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures and other symbols
    • symbols are key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with another
  6. social constructionism
    • how we as a society, construct concepts and principles
    • "honor and "justice" dependent on how individuals decide within that society
  7. rational choice theory
    benefit vs cost for any decision making
  8. exchange theory
    cost and benefit in groups (individual will carry out certain behaviors because of anticipated rewards (approval of others) and will avoid certain behaviors because of anticipated punishments)
  9. feminist theory
    explain social inequalities that exist on basis of gender
  10. mandated reporter
    as a physician, one is legally required to report suspected cases of elder or child abuse
  11. hidden curriculum
    in education: transmitting social norms, attitudes, and beliefs to students.
  12. teach expectancy
    higher expectation for students and belief in students, students will achieve more
  13. religion
    a set of beliefs and practices that seek to address the meaning of existence
  14. sect
    a religious group that has chosen to break off from parent relation (church)
  15. theocracy
    power is held by religious leaders
  16. socialist
    treats large industries as collective, shared business and compensation based on work into system (posit distributed equally)
  17. four tenets of medical ethics
    • beneficence (act in patient's best interest)
    • nonmaleficence (do no harm)
    • respect for patient autonomy
    • justice (treat all with same care)
  18. culture 2 types
    • entire lifestyle for a given group
    • material (artifacts, meaning of american flag in society)
    • symbolic (ideas that represent the group of people, songs/motto)
  19. culture lag
    as a result of the slower to change of symbolic culture, technology advances, but Americans still prize individuality and privacy
  20. values vs. beliefs
    • values what person deems to be important in life (dictates ethical principals and standards of behavior)
    • belief: individual accepts to be true
  21. ageism
    prejudice or discrimination on the basis of person's age
  22. gender differences
    • influenced by cultural norms and values
    • emphasize the distinct roles and behaviors or men and women in given culture
  23. gender inequality
    • intentional or unintentional empowerment of one gender to the detriment of the other
    • gender segregation (separation of individuals based on perceived gender, public bathrooms, etc)
  24. race
    • based on superficial traits (like skin color)
    • social construct based on phenotypic differences between groups of people
  25. racial formation theory
    racial identity if fluid and dependent on concurrent political, economic, and social factors
  26. ethnicity
    • social construct, sorts people by cultural factors (language, nationality, religion, and other factors)
    • one can choose to or not to display ethnic identity, racial identities are always on display
  27. symbolic ethnicity
    specific connection to one's ethnicity in which ethnic symbols and identity remain important, even when ethnic identity does not play a significant role in daily lifer (irish americans celebrate "irishness" on st. patty's day even though their irish ethnicity does not play a significant role
  28. kinley scale
    0 (heterosexual) and 6 (homosexual)
  29. intersectionality
    multiple institutions (racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, xenophobia, classism, etc.) are interconnected and cannot be examined separately from one another
  30. demographic shifts
    change in the makeup of a population over time
  31. demographic transition
    • changes in birth and death rates in a country as it develops from a preindustrial to industrial economic system.¬†
    • preindustrial: high birth and death rates
    • stage 2: decrease in death rate, increase in healthcare
    • stage 3: improvement in contraception (birth rate decrease)
    • industrial society: both death and birth rates are low
  32. Malthusian theory
    exponential growth of a population can outpace growth of the food supply and lead to social degradation and disorder
  33. social movements
    • promote social change (proactive)
    • resist social change (reactive)
  34. fertility rate
    average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
  35. what does socioeconomic status depend on?
    • ascribed status: involuntary, derives from clearly identifiable characteristics such as age, gender and skin color
    • achieved status: acquired through direct, individual efforts
  36. power
    capacity to influence people through real or perceived rewards and punishments, power differentials create social inequality
  37. prestige
    respect and importance tied to specific occupations or associations
  38. anomie
    • normlessness
    • anomic conditions erode social solidarity by means of excessive individualism, social inequality and isolation
  39. social capital
    • investment people make in their society in return for economic or collective reward
    • example: social networks
  40. plutocracy
    rule by upper class
  41. poverty
    poverty line is det by gov't calculation of the minimum income requirements for families to acquire the minimum necessities of life
  42. social reproduction
    pasing on social inequality from one generation to the next, ex: poverty
  43. two types of poverty
    • absolute: people do not have enough resources to acquire basic life necessities, such as shelter, food and clothing
    • relative poverty: poor in comparison to larger population
  44. environmental injustice
    unequal distribution of environmental hazards in communities. lower class lack social and political power to prevent placement of environmental hazards in their neighborhoods
  45. morbidity
    • degree of illness associated with a given disease
    • women higher morbidity, men have higher mortality
  46. second sickness
    exacerbation of health outcomes due to social injustice.
Card Set
sociology social structure and demographics
chapter 11