Module 1: Nutrition & Tools for a Healthy Diet

  1. Micronutrients
    nutrients needed in milligram or microgram quantities in a diet.  Vitamins & minerals are micronutrients.
  2. Macronutrients
    Nutrient needed in gram quantities in the diet.  Fat, protein  & carbohydrates are macronutrients.
  3. Enzyme
    Compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process, but not altered by the process.  Almost all enzymes are proteins (some are made of nucleic acids).
  4. What are Phytochemicals?

    Give examples
    Physiologically active compound in plants that may provide health benefits.

    • Carotenoids - apples, cranberries
    • Monoterpenes - oranges, grapefruit juice in smoothie
    • Flavonoids - citurs fruit in smoothie, apples
    • Catechins - green tea
  5. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
    used to encompass nutrient recommendations made by the Food and Nutrition Board and the National Academy of Sciences.  These include RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowance), EARs (Estimated Average Requirements), AIs (Adequate Intake), EERs (Estimated Energy Requirements), and ULs (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels).
  6. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
    Daily nutrient intake amount sufficient to meet the needs of nearly all individuals (97 to 98%) in a specific life stage.
  7. Daily Values (DVs)
    Generic nutrient standard developed by the FDA for the Nutrition Facts labels; it's not gender or age specific.
  8. Daily Reference Values (DRVs)
    Nutrient intake standards established for protein, carbohydrate and some dietary components lacking an RDA or a related nutrient standard, such as total fat intake.  The DRVs constitute part of the Daily Values used in food labeling.
  9. Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs)
    Nutrient intake standards set by the FDA based on the 1968 RDAs for various vitamins & minerals.  RDIs have been set for 4 categoies of people; infants, toddlers, people over 4 years of age, and pregnant or lactating women.  Generally, the highest RDA value out of all categories is used as the RDI.  The RDIs constitute part of the Daily Valutes used in food labeling.
  10. Adequate Intakes (AIs) –
    Nutrient intake amount set for any nutrient for which insufficient research is available to establish an RDA.  AIs are based on estimates of intakes that appear to maintain a defined nutritional state in a specific life stage.
  11. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
    Maximum chronic daily intake of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in almost all people in a population.  This number applies to a chronic daily use.
  12. Health Claims
    claim that describes a well researched & documented relationship between a disease and a nutrient, food or food constituent.
  13. List at least two Health claims
    • A diet low in sodium may reduce risk of hypertension
    • A diet low in total fat may reduce risk of some cancers.
    • A diet low in saturated fat & cholesterol may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Sugar alcohols do not promote tooth decay.
  14. What requirements must be made before a health claim can be made on a food product?
    • The food must be a good source of fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium or iron - it must provide at least 10% of the Daily Value for at least 1 of these nutrients.
    • A Single serving of the food cannot contain more than 13 grams of fat, 4 g of saturate fat, 60mg of cholesterol, or 480 mg of sodium.
    • The product must meet criteria specific to the health claim being made.
  15. Structure/function claims
    claim that describes how a nutrient affects human body structure or function, such as “iron builds strong blood.”
  16. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    general goals for nutrient intake and diet composition set by the USDA and the USDAHHS (Health & Human Services)
  17. List 5 key recommendation from of Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Prevent &/or reduce overweight & obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors.
    • Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors.
    • Consume less than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol.
    • Increase vegetable & fruit intake.
    • Select an eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time at an appropriate calorie level.
  18. Which nutrients featured on Nutrition Facts panels should most people aim to keep below 100% Daily Value?
    Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium.
  19. What do Carbohydrates do for a nutritious Diet?

    Food sources?
    Are need to make glucose.  When too little carbohydrate is eaten to supply sufficient glucose, the body is forced to make glucose from proteins.

    Fruits, vegetables, grain and beans are the primary dietary sources of carbohydrate.
  20. What do Lipids do for a nutritious Diet?

    Food sources?
    Unsaturated fats tend to be healthier than saturated fats – saturated fat raises blood cholesterol, which can clog arteries and eventually lead to cardiovascular disease. Fats also cushion organs.
  21. What do Proteins do for a nutritious Diet?

    Food sources?
    Are the main structural material in the body. They are a major part of bone and muscle; they also are important components in blood, cell membranes, enzymes, and immune factors.
  22. What do Vitamins do for a nutritious Diet?

    Food sources?
    Enable many chemical reactions to occur in the body. Some of these reactions help release the energy trapped in carbohydrates, lipids, and protein.
  23. What do Minerals do for a nutritious Diet?

    Food sources?
    Minerals inorganic substances, typically function in the body as groups of one or more of the same atoms or as parts of mineral combinations, found in bones. Because they are elements, minerals are not destroyed during cooking. Minerals play key roles in the nervous system, skeletal system and water balance.
  24. What does Water do for a nutritious Diet?
    Water is the nutrient needed in the largest quantity. Water acts as a solvent and lubricant and is a medium for transporting nutrients to cells.  It also helps regulate body temperature,
  25. Identify the six types of nutrients and their role in a nutritious diet
    • Carbohydrates 
    • Lipids
    • Proteins  
    • Vitamins 
    • Minerals
    • Water
  26. Understand the history and function of nutrition guidelines
    • The Dietary Guideline are the foundation of the US government’s nutrition policy and education. They reflect what experts believe is the most accurate and up-to-date scientific knowledge about nutritious diets and related lifestyle choices.
    • Dietary Guideline recommendations are grouped into 4 topics; balancing calories to manage weight, foods and food components to reduce, foods and nutrients to increase, and building healthy eating patterns.
  27. Characteristics of North American diet:
    • American adults consume, on average, 16% of their energy intake as proteins, 50% as carbohydrates, and 33% as fats.  Many people are eating more than they need to maintain a healthy weight. 
    • Animal sources, such as meat, seafood, dairy products and eggs, supply about 2/3 of the protein intake for most N. Americans; plant sources provide only about 1/3. 
    • About 50% the carbohydrates in N. American diets come from simple carbohydrates (sugars), Most Americans need to reduce sugar intake and increase intake of starch and fiber. 
    • 60% of dietary fat comes from animal sources and only 40% from plant sources, many Americans are consuming far more saturated fat and cholesterol than is recommended.
  28. How to improve the North American Diet?
    • Rich food sources of vitamin A & E, iron, and calcium and reducing our intake of sodium.
    • Reduce intake of soft drinks & fatty foods
    • Eating more fruit, vegetables, whole-grain breads and reduced-fat dairy products.
    • Vitamin & Mineral supplements also can help meet nutrient needs but, they can’t fully make up for a poor diet in all respects.
  29. describe how food labeling and claims on food packages can assist in making healthy food choices
    • The Nutrition Facts panel provides accurate information about a food’s nutrient & calorie content.  
    • help consumers quickly make healthy food choices, the food industry has tried to condense the nutrition labels into symbols on food packages. For instance, a pink heart might be used to indicate a food is a good source of phytonutrients.  A green star on a grocery shelf tag, could indicate a food is rich in vitamins and low in calories.
  30. identify reliable source of nutrition information?
    • www.dietary
  31. How many calories are in a food that has 8g carbohydrate, 2 g alcohol, 4 g fat and 2 g protein?
    • Carbs - 8g x 4 = 32
    • Fat -    4g x 9 = 36
    • Prtn -   2g x 4 = 8
    • Alchl -  2g x 7 = 14
    • 32 + 14 + 36 + 8 = 90kcal total
  32. List the definitions for "low-fat," "fat-free," and "reduced-fat."
    • Low-fat:  40 kcal or </serving (if serving is small, per 50g of the food)
    • Fat-free:  < 0.5 grams fat/serving
    • Reduced Fat:  at least 25% less per serving than reference food.
Card Set
Module 1: Nutrition & Tools for a Healthy Diet
Information based on the text Wardlaw's Perspectives in Nutrition