Philosophy exam 1

  1. What is ethics?
    The study of right and wrong
  2. Distinguish between ethics and morality
    for this class they will be used interchangeably
  3. What is business ethics?
    The study of right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a business context
  4. Characteristics of moral standards
    • concern behavior that is of serious consequence to human welfare
    • take priority over other standards, including self-interest
    • their soundness depends on the adequacy of the reasons that support or justify them
  5. moral standards vs. etiquette
    rules for socially acceptable behavior are not moral standards
  6. Moral standards vs. professional codes of ethics
    rules that govern the conduct of members of a given profession
  7. societal norms-ethical relativism
    • the right thing to do is what one's culture says is right
    • this keeps culture stagnant -- no moral growth
    • it leaves no basis for one culture to pass judgment on another's actions
    • ones' culture is hard to identify in the modern world
  8. Egoism - Adam Smith
    • a consequentialist theory 
    • what matters for egoists is the consequence of their actions for themselves
  9. Utilitarianism - Bentham and Mill
    • a consequentialist theory
    • right and wrong depends on the consequences of one's actions for everyone who might be affected by them
  10. Jeremy Bentham
    • Was a hedonist
    • believed that happiness was a matter of more pleasure than pain
  11. quality vs. quantity (Bentham and Mill)
    • Bentham:  Pushpin is as good as poetry
    • Mill:  It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied
  12. Principle of utility (utilitarianism)
    • The right action is the one that produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain, or happiness over unhappiness, for everyone affected by the action
    • animals count too, since they feel pleasure and pain 
    • future generation count, since our actions can have far-reaching consequences
  13. Deotology -- Immanuel Kant
    • Moral is duty-based
    • duty is something you are required to do whether you want to or not and regardless of the consequences 
    • The will is our capacity to make decisions and act one them
    • the good will act out of duty and is the only thing that is absolutely good
    • doing one's duty for Kant is following the categorical imperative (categorical means without exception; imperative means command)
  14. Categorical Imperative first formulation
    • act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law
    • a maxim is a general rule
    • ask yourself what general rule would describe what you are thinking about doing.  If you cannot will that it should be ok for everyone to do it, then,you cannot make an exception for yourself or for any other reason
  15. Categorical imperative -- Second formulation
    • act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only 
    • do not use people or exploit them 
    • respect human beings because they can think for themselves and have an independent will
  16. Common sense morality -- W. D. Ross
    • perceived that there were fundamental problems with both deontology and utilitarianism
    • He wrote that each of us feels intuitively that there are certain duties or obligations that should be honored, unless some other moral consideration stands in the way of our doing so
  17. Common sense morality -- examples of duties
    • also called prima facie duties
    • fidelity (faithfulness):  if we make a promise, we should keep it
    • gratitude:  if someone does something to assist us, we should repay them for their kindness
    • reparation:  if we injure someone, we should make up for the harm we did
    • justice:  if we see that someone is be treated unfairly, we should do what is in our power to correct the injustice 
    • beneficence:  we should improve the live of others when we are able 
    • self-improvement:  we should improve our own lives (morally, intellectually, physically) to the extent we are able
    • non-maleficence:  we should avoid harming others
  18. Ross says moral dilemmas occur when?
    • we are faced with conflicts among our obligations (fidelity, gratitude, reparation, etc...)
    • when situations occur when we must set aside one obligation to fulfill another, we must use our capacity for rational judgment to determine which obligation takes precedence in that situation
  19. Ross believed that common sense theory incorporates what?
    • the insight from deontology that we are rational beings worthy of respect
    • the insight from utilitarianism that we live our lives in context and so must be free to examine the situation in which we find ourselves in order to make our moral judgments 
    • it avoids the too rigid objection against deontology and the too flexible objection against utilitarianism
  20. Feminist ethics is also known as what?
    ethics of care
  21. Gilligan's male approach
    • individuals have certain basic rights, and that you have to respect the rights of others
    • so morality imposes restrictions on what you can do
    • justice orientation
  22. Gilligan's female approach
    • people have responsibilities towards others.  
    • so morality is an imperative to care for others
    • responsibility orientation
  23. Definitions of the nature of justice
    • Fairness:  involves the fair treatment of members of groups of people or else looks backwards to the fair compensation of prior injuries 
    • equality:  the burden of proof is on those who would endorse unequal treatment.  Is there any good reason why A has more than B?
    • Desert:  Everyone should get what he or she deserves
    • Right:  That which is owed to persons for their own sakes
  24. Five rival principles of distribution
    • to each an equal share
    • to each according to individual need
    • to each according to personal effort
    • to each according to social contribution 
    • to each according to merit
  25. Rival principles of justice
    • utilitarianism:  want an economic system that will bring more good to society than any other system
    • libertarianism: a state that taxes ots netter-off citizens to support the less fortunate ones violates the liberty of individuals by forcing them to support things they have not freely chosen to support
    • egalitarianism:  each person possesses and inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override
  26. Peter Singer
    Utilitarian philosopher
  27. The drowning child is an example of what?
    an argument for an obligation to assist
  28. Robert Nozick
  29. Nozick's Wilt Chamberlain story is an example of what?
    his opposition to taxation for social programs
  30. John Rawls
  31. Rawl's just society; the original position
    imagine that those who engage in social cooperation choose together, in on joint act, the principles which are to assign basic rights and duties and to determine the division of social benefits
  32. Rawl's just society; the veil of ignorance
    no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength and the like
  33. Rawl's just society; two principles
    • there must be equality in the assignment of basic rights and duties
    • social and economic inequalities are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone, and in particular for the least advantaged members of society
Card Set
Philosophy exam 1
Philosophy exam 1