EMT ALL CHAPTERS

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  1. Who governs the Standard of prehospital emergecy care??



    Ch1 P20
    The state office of EMS
  2. EMT, AEMT, and Paramedic levels are Recommended and licensed by whom?


    ch1 P20
    they have been recommended by national standards and licensed by the state.
  3. What skills can an EMT do?



    CH1 p20
    Basic emergency skills including AED, Airway adjuncts and ASSiSTING in certain medications.
  4. What skills can an AEMT Perform?



    Ch1 p20
    Specific ALS like IV's and certain emergency medications.
  5. What are the key components to an AEMTS job?


    ch1 p20
    • scene sizeup
    • patient assessment and treatment and packing.

    after that prepare for transport while staying within your protocol.
  6. What is CQI?



    ch1 p20
    Continuous quality improvement is continuous internal and external reviews on all aspects of an ems call.
  7. What is the health information portability and accountability act


    ch1 p21
    legislation created in1996 providing criminal sanctions and civil penalties for releasing patient information.
  8. Professional attributes of an AEMT??



    ch1 p18
    Integrity,empathy,self-motivation, appearance and hygiene, self confidence, time management, communications, teamwork, respect, patient advocacy, careful delivery of care
  9. what are primary and secondary means of prevention?


    ch1 p16
    Primary-focuses on the strategies that will prevent the event from ever happening. also ensuring that people know the risks of drinking and driving or using tobacco.
  10. What different steps can you take to prevent yourself from infectious disease???


    ch2 p59
    • Remain up-to-date on vaccinations
    • following standard precautions at all times
    • handleing needles and other sharps with great care
  11. what are the recommended vaccinations to keep up to date?

    ch2 p59
    • tetnus boosters
    • MMR
    • flu shot
    • hep B
    • varcella
    • TB skin test
  12. what consideration is the most important situation?


    ch2 p59
    you safety

    hazards include traffic hazards,unstable vehicle, exposure to hazardous materials. electricity and fire.
  13. What is the standard of care


    ch3
    is the manner in which when treating sick or injured patients
  14. What is you Duty to act



    ch3
    is the responsibility of an individual to provide patient care.
  15. What is negligence



    ch3
    failure to provide the same care that a person of similar training would provide.


    determination of that determines on proximate cause, breach of duty, duty, damages.
  16. What is defined as assault?
    unlawfully placing a person in fear of immediate harm without the persons consent.
  17. what is defined as battery?



    ch3
    unlawfully touching someone. this includes providing emergency care without consent.
  18. Describe the guidelines of consent



    ch3
    A patient that's alert and oriented must be give you consent prior to providing care. a conscious adult must give you expressed consent. the expressed consent must also be informed
  19. what are the guidelines for consent for a minor??


    ch3
    you should try to obtain consent from a parent or guardian whenever possible. but you should NEVER withhold life saving care.
  20. what are he presumptive signs of death



    ch3
    • unresposive to painful stimuli
    • lack of pulse or heartbeat
    • absent breath sounds
    • no corneal reflexes
    • no blood pressure
    • profound cyanosis
    • lowered body temp.
  21. How do you work with difficult Paitents???



    Ch4
    Use the same technique just make extra effort to be open and compassionate. Use open-ended questions provide positive feed back.
  22. What are the components of ems system communication
    • Base station-dispatch to ems
    • Repeater-receive signals on a channel and transmits them on another frequency.
  23. What purpose does the skeleton serve??



    Ch5
    • Protection of fragile organs
    • Allows movement and
    • gives body its shape.
  24. Why is cardiac muscle different??



    CH5
    Has the automacity property. Generate and conduct w/o influence of the brain.
  25. what are the structures of the respiratory system??



    ch5
    Nose, mouth, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
  26. What portion controls breathing?




    ch5
    The respiratory center in the brainstem controls breathing. the nerves in that area notices the levels of CO2in the blood and spinal fluid. The brain adjusts the levels in the arterial blood supply.
  27. Describe what happens with the diaphragm during inhalation?


    ch5
    diaphragm contract moving DOWN. the intercostals contract the move the ribs UP and OUt.

    after enlarging the chest cavity, the pressure begins to fall, making it lower than atmospheric pressure. then air rushes into the lungs.

    AKA- Negative pressure breathing.
  28. How much percent of oxygen do we take into each breath, and artificially?



    ch5
    16% percent is good enough for the body.
  29. how does the alveolicapillary exchange occur??



    ch5
    it diffuses across the membrane (gas dissolves into a liquid) the gases move from a higher concentration moves to a lower concentration
  30. How does carbon dioxide move into the alveoli



    ch5
    CO2 moves in where the concentration is lower. oxygenated blood then enters the left side of the heart.
  31. what is the primary waste product of metabolisim???



    ch5
    Carbon dioxide.
  32. What is an hypoxic drive
    Back up system to control respiration.
  33. What determines the level of acidity in the blood
    The concentration of hydrogen ions
  34. Describe the ph scale
    • 0 (most acidic)
    • 14 (least acidic)
    • 7 (neutral)

    • When higher than 7 its too basic or alkalotic
    • Lower or acidic or acidotic
  35. What is afterload
    The pressure in the aorta against the left ventricle must pump against.

    The greater the  after load the smaller the stroke volume
  36. What is cardiac output?
    Amount of blood pumped in one min.

    HEART RATE MULTIPLIED BY STROKE VOLUME
  37. What is starling  law??



    ch5
    Increased venous return to the heart and stretches the ventricles and increased contractility
  38. what different mechanisims allow material to pass thru the wall?


    ch5
    • diffusiom
    • osmosis
    • facilitated diffusion
    • active transport
    • endocytosis
    • and  exocytosis
  39. what are the major mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis?


    ch5
    • Anti-diuretic hormone
    • thirst
    • kidneys
    • and water shifts.
  40. where is the pancreas and what does it do?


    ch5
    behind the liver and the stomach and behind the peritonium

    its exocrine job is to secrete two liters of pancreatic juice a day to digest fat protein and starch.

    the other portion is endocrine thru the islets of Langerhans to secrete insulin or glucagon.
  41. describe where the gallbladder is and what it does????


    ch5
    gallbladder and the bile ducts connected to the liver to form the bilary system. usually holds 60-90 ml of fluid
  42. what hormones does the anterior pituitary gland secrete?? Then the posterior


    ch5
    Posterior= Oxytocin and anti diuretic hormone

    Anterior= Growth hormone, luitinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic, thyroid stimulating,prolactin, melanocyte stimulating hormone.
  43. Where is the thyroid gland and what is its job??


    ch5
    located at the base of the neck and its job is to secrete hormones that deal with growth, metabolism. it secretes calcitonin which regulates high calcium to normal levels in the blood.

    **the parathyroid regulates low levels of calcium. located behind the thyroid.
  44. whats another name for the startle reflex in infants??

    ch6
    moro refelx
  45. from infant and up. whats a normal respiratory rate.


    ch6
    25 - 50 breaths/min and blood pressure would be between 70-95
  46. What are the 4 compounds that make up a medication?
    • -synthetic
    • -vegtable
    • -animal
    • -mineral
  47. what were the first 5 laws governing the use of medications


    ch7
    • Pure food and drug act(1906)
    • food drug and cosmetic act 1938)

    • harrison narcotic act (1914)
    • narcotic control act(1956)
    • controlled substance act(1970)
  48. what is the following
    chemical name-
    generic name-
    trade name-
    official name
    ch7
    chemical name is the precise description of the chemical and molecular structure

    generic name is usually its original chemical name

    the trade name is the name that the manufacturer gives to the medication

    official name- name assigned by the usp
  49. From the controlled substance act of 1970 5 different classes of classifications of medications came out. what is the difference between them
    ch7
    Schedule1-highest abuse potential, no medical application just research only. banned everywhere.

    schedule 2- amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, Demerol and short acting barbiturates.

    schedule 3-same drugs as above but now with more narcs. Tylenol with codeine, Vicodin. low or moderate physical dependence.

    schedule 4-low abuse potential Valium, ativan

    schedule 5-lowest, but can lead to dependence. cough syrups with codeine
  50. Children need Lower or higher doses of medication???


    ch7
    higher: children metabolize medication quicker than adults do. and more frequent
  51. Drugs or medications can be classified into the following three categories.


    ch7
    By body system- catagorized by the system affected by the drug

    by class of agent- the class of medication tells how it affects the system

    By mechanism of action-the particular action by which the drug creates a desired effect on the organisim (nitro opens up the heart)
  52. what is the alpha 1 response??
    Peripheral vaso-constriction
  53. whats is an alpha-2 response
    • Peripheral vasodilation
    • little or no broncoconstriction
  54. what are the beta one responses
    Increased heart rate, automacity, contractility and conductivity
  55. what are the beta 2 responses
    bronchodilation and vasodilation.
  56. what are parasympathomimetics also called
    cholinergic medications because they stimulate cholinergic receptors. the antagonists to that is called
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316496
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EMT ALL CHAPTERS
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ALL the chapter in the book. the chapter and page name will be on the question card in the Corner.
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