For. Exam 1

  1. Belief
    Propositional; expressed in a declarative sentence (true/false)
  2. Objective Claim
    Whether it is true or false is independent of whether people think it's true/false
  3. Subjective Claim
    Whether it is true/false is not independent of whether people think its true/ false
  4. Relativism
    Idea that truth is relative to the standards of a given culture
  5. Moral Subjectivism
    Idea that moral opinions are subjective
  6. Issue
    A question
  7. Argument
    Presents a consideration for accepting a claim
  8. Premise
    Provides the reason of the argument
  9. Conclusion
    What the premise supports/demonstrates
  10. Cognitive Biases
    Skew our apprehension of reality & interfere with our ability to think clearly/reason objectively
  11. Belief Bias
    Tendency to evaluate reasoning by the believablity of its conclusion (beginning false, but ending true)
  12. Confirmation Bias
    Tendency to attach more weight to evidence that supports our viewpoint
  13. Bias
    Unconscious expressions of the human tendency to think our side of an issue is correct
  14. Heuristics
    Helps find adequate answers to difficult questions
  15. Availability heuristic
    Assigning probability based on how easily an example can be brought to mind
  16. False Consensus Effect
    Tendency to overestimate the degree to which attitudes held by ourselves & our peers are held by society at large
  17. Bandwagon Effect
    Tendency to align our belief system w/ the belief systems of those around us
  18. Negativity Bias
    Tendency to weigh negative information more heavily than positive information
  19. Loss aversion
    People generally are more strongly motivated to avoid a loss than to accrue a gain
  20. In-group bias
    Bias that makes us view people who belong to our group differently from people who don't
  21. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Tendency to not appreciate others' behavior is as much constrained by events & circumstances as our own would be if we were in their situation
  22. Obedience to authority
    People will buy/do anything when told to do so by a person in a labcoat
  23. Overconfidence Effect
    A bias that leads us to overestimate the probability that we know the correct answer
  24. Better-than-average
    Group rates themselves as better than most of a group relative to some desirable characteristic (resourcefulness)
  25. Deductive Argument
    The premise of a good deductive argument, if true, proves/demonstrates its conclusion
  26. Valid Argument
    Argument valid if it isn't possible for the premise(s) to be true & the conclusion false
  27. Sound Argument
    When the premise of a valid argument is true
  28. Invalid Argument
    Premises are true, but conclusion is false
  29. Inductive Argument
    Premise of a good inductive argument doesn't demonstrate its conclusion; it supports it
  30. Affirming the consequent
    If P then Q. Q. Therefore, P
  31. Antecedent
    Part of first premise after "if" of the claim
  32. Consequent
    Part after "then" in the claim
  33. Denying the Antecedent
    If P then Q. Not P. Therefore, not Q
  34. Undistributed Middle
    X has features a,b,c. Y has features a,b,c. Therefore, X is Y
  35. Equivocation
    Trying to support/demonstrate a point by playing on the ambiguity in the meaning of an expression (semantic ambiguity)
  36. Amphiboly
    Trying to support/demonstrate a point by playing on the ambiguity of an expression, where the ambiguity derives from
  37. Composition
    Assuming what's true of the parts of a thing must be true of the thing itself
  38. Division
    Assuming what's true of the whole must also be true of its parts
  39. Contradictories
    Can't both be true and can't both be false
  40. Contraries
    Can't both be true, but could both be false
  41. Subcontraries
    Can't both be false, but could both be true
  42. Consistent Belief
    If it's possible that each & every one of them is true at the same time
  43. Inconsistent Belief
    If it's not possible for all of them to be true at the same time
  44. Gambler's Fallacy
    Thinking that independent events are actually dependent
  45. Not accounting for Prior Probabilities
    Not adequately accounting for the actual probability of an event given the observed outcome
  46. Not accounting for False Positives
    Not taking into account that a test may give erroneous results
  47. Disjunction
    • False if and only if both of its disjuncts are false
    • "OR"
  48. Condition Claim
    • Most common way of stating conditionals
    • "If...then..."
Card Set
For. Exam 1
terms for the first exam