Psy 168 Exam 1

  1. what is psychology?
    the study to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns
  2. psychopathology
    abnormal disorders
  3. what are the 4 Ds that define an abnormal disorder
    Deviance, Danger, Distress, Dysfunction
  4. Definition of a mental disorder, according to DSM5
    -defining characteristics
    -excluded conditions
    • 1. present distress
    • 2. Functioning impairment
    • 3. Increased suffering 

    • 1. A culturally accepted response
    • 2. Deviant behavior 
    • 3. Conflicts between and individual and a society (expressing individuality)
  5. What is borderline personality disorder and how is it characterized
    A patterns in early adulthood of instability in interpersonal relationships. Very impulsive, reckless with intense mood swings. Intense fear of abandonment and paranoia from it.
  6. What does APA mean?
    American Psychiatric Association
  7. Eugenics? 
    2 kinds
    • The breeding of a perfect race
    • Positive- more births with desirable traits 
    • Negative- stopping birth of undesirable traits
  8. Epidemiology
    • -The study of epidemics
    • -The study of the distribution of disorders, diseases, and abnormal behavior in a population
  9. Incidence
    • the rate of occurrence of a given population over a given period of time
    • ex. incidence of 4% people in 1 year
  10. Prevalence
    the relative proportion of active cases that can be identified at a given time
  11. Lifetime Prevalence
    total proportion of people in a pop who have EVER had the disorder (cured and non cured)
  12. Etiology
    • -the study of origin/cause of a disorder
    • -the apparent causation/development of a disorder
  13. Prognosis
    a forecast of the probable course of an illness
  14. Somatogenic
    physical causes, the root of a disorder

    caused by physical problems, like hormones
  15. Psychogenic
    Origin that is psychological in nature
  16. What kind of a psychologist is one that treats human emotional difficulties
    clinical psychologist
  17. Treatments to abnormal psychology in the past
    • Trephination-surgical removing circle from skull 
    • Limiting yellow or black bile (Hippocrates) 
    • Exorcisms of demons 
    • Rise of mental asylums
    • Then put in prisons or out of the street
  18. Psychoanalysis

    developed by who?
    a form of discussion that helps people gain insight into their unconscious processes. 

    • sometimes by free association-when a person lays down and talks about what comes to mind
    • sometimes more direct and the therapist watching the persons resistance to talking about things that are emotionally hard
  19. 4 types of psychotropic medications
    • anti-anxiety
    • anti-depressants
    • anti-psychotics 
    • anti-bipolar
  20. positive psychology
    study and enhancement of positive feelings such as optimism and happiness, positive traits, etc.
  21. what is needed for it to be treatment?
    a patient, a therapist, and a series of therapeutic contacts
  22. Paradigm/Model
    Paradigm/Model- perspectives made to explain events. Each one spells out a scientist’s basic assumption.
  23. Types of Etiological models 
    think of the spectrum of them
    • -biological basis:physical cause
    • -psychoanalytic:psychological cause
    • -cognitive/behavioral:thinking that underlies behavior patterns and how they're learned
    • -humanistic:values and choices
    • -social factors:social and cultural forces
  24. role of hippocampus

    regulates emotions and memory

    emotional memory
  25. huntington's disease
    violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thoughts, involuntary movements, absurd beliefs
  26. describe the neurological process thought to effect abnormal behavior
    issue with neuron-neuron

    impulses go from neuron, to neuron's dendrites down to the axon, and is transmitted from axon to other dendrites
  27. what is a synapse
    the space between two neurons
  28. what do neurotransmitters do?
    jump between synapses relaying a message to the receptors
  29. what is schizophrenia and what does the book say might cause it?
    -disorder marked by hallucinations, delusion, and departures from reality

    -exposure to certain viruses during childhood or before birth
  30. 3 main types of biological treatments
    • psychotropic drugs
    • ECT-shock therapy 
    • Psycho/Neurosurgery
  31. why is the psychodynamic model considered "dynamic"
    the way their unconscious forces interact with each other leads to the emotion that leads to the abnormal behavior

    no behavior is accidental, it comes from something
  32. lobotomy
    cuts connections between the brain's frontal lobes and lower regions
  33. true or false? 
    psychoanalysis refers to normal both and abnormal function according to Freud?
  34. What 3 forces shape the personality, according to Freud?
    • ID- instinctual needs
    • EGO- the rational thinking 
    • SUPEREGO- provides moral standards, the developing of a conscious
  35. What strategies does the ego employ to control the id?
    repression, denial, regression, projection, rationalization, displacement, intellectualization
  36. what is repression?
    person avoids anxiety by not letting painful thoughts become conscious
  37. denial
    person refuses to acknowledge the problems existence
  38. projection
    a person saying their bad impulses are actually coming from someone else
  39. rationalization
    creating a socially acceptable reason for their unacceptable behavior or motive
  40. displacement
    a person takes their anger from one situation, and shows the hostility towards another safer person
  41. intellectualization
    when a person suppresses emotion and gives an overly logical response to a problem
  42. regression
    a person encounters a conflict that causes them to behave in a way that would only be acceptable in an early developmental stage
  43. 3 types of behavioral conditioning
    • operant conditioning- learning behavior based on rewards received 
    • modeling- learning by observing others
    • classical conditioning- when 2 events occur close together in time so association is formed
  44. 3 basic concepts of behavioral model
    stimulus, response, reward
  45. what is cognitive-behavioral therapy
    therapy that helps clients change bad behaviors and dysfunctional thinking
  46. what is the cognitive model
    is focuses on thoughts and the process of thinking, remembering, and anticipating
  47. humanistic-existential model
    Focuses on broader dimension of human existence. Self Actualization- fulfill the potential for goodness + growth. Leads to naturally take care of needs of others, loving, courageous, spontaneous and independent behavior.
  48. existential therapy
    what is the meaning of life
  49. Gestalt therapy
    • focuses on immediate awareness
    • they look at different parts of themselves
  50. group therapy
    a therapist sits down with a group of people with similar problems
  51. self-help/mutual help
    people with similar problems gather together without therapist or leadership
  52. 3 characteristics of assessment tools
    • standardized-common steps to be administered
    • reliability-consistency of measurements
    • validity-measurement must be accurate
  53. projective test
    clients interpret vague stimuli like inkblots or ambiguous pictures or follow open-ended questions
  54. rorschach test
    use of colored inkblots that were folded in half to make pictures
  55. thematic appreciation test
    black and white peoples on people in vague situation, patient is asked to make up a story for them
  56. what is MMPI
    a personal inventory test
  57. psychopathic deviate
    showing emotional shallowness or gross regard for social customs
  58. psychasthenia
    obsessions, compulsions, indecisiveness
  59. hypomania
    overactivity of excitement, or ideas
  60. syndrome
    a cluster of symptoms
  61. How does DSM-5 require clinicians to make a proper diagnosis
    • categorical- what it is 
    • and dimensional-how severe it is
  62. Define factitious disorder in DSM-5
    develops a physical problem to get attention 

    -person has an honest concern for themselves with a physical manifestation
  63. Malingering disorder
    • -vcodes in DSM-5
    • -faking a disorder for ones own gain, maybe to get out of something
  64. psychometric test
    psychological test
  65. 2 types of personality tests
    objective and projective
  66. countertransference
    a therapists own feelings, history, and values influence the way they interpret the patient's problems
  67. 4 parts of endocrine system
    • pituitary gland-growth
    • thyroid-regulates thyroid
    • pineal-body rhythms, sleep, etc
    • adrenals-adjustments to stress, arouses body
  68. limbic system (4 things)

    what does each do
    - associated with emotional response 

    • thalamus-switchboard for sensory info  
    • hypothalamus- regulation of behaviors
    • amygdala- fear
    • hippocampus-long term memory
  69. Acetylcholine 
    what? inhibit? or excite?
    can inhibit and excite
  70. dopamine
    what? inhibit? or excite?
Card Set
Psy 168 Exam 1
exam 1