HMWH Unit 6 Part 2

  1. Adolf Hitler
    • Failure in secondary school, went to Vienna to become an artist and was rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, lived in Vienna for a few years, which is where he got his ideas from
    • Racism and antisemitism were some of his ideas
    • Had a talent for knowing how to use propaganda, political parties, and terror
    • This allowed him to spread his movement effectively
    • Joined the German Workers' Party, a right-wing extremist party in Munich
  2. Nazi Party
    • Hitler created the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), the Nazis
    • Known as the SA, Storm Troops, or Brownshirts
    • Hitler was sent to prison after staging an uprising against the govn in Munich (the Beer Hall Puntch)
    • While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) that was an account of his ideas of movements
    • It emphasized the right of superior nations to¬† lebensraum (living spaces) through expansion
  3. Reichstag
    • The German parliament
    • Hitler realized the Nazis would have to gain power by legal means, not overthrow of the govn
    • After he was released from prison, Hitler expanded the Nazi Party to all parts of Germany and had become bigger than Reichstag
    • Unemployment had risen in Germany (4.35 million to 6 million in a year)
    • Great Depression had made extremist parties more attractive
    • Many right-wing elites started looking to Hitler as a leader
  4. Enabling Act
    • A law that gave the govn the power to ignore the constitution for four years to deal w/ the country's problems
    • This made Hitler's actions legal
    • He became dictator appointed by the parliamentary body itself
  5. Concentration camps
    • Civil service was purged of Jews and democratic elements
    • Camps were sent up for the people who opposed the new regime
    • Trade unions dissolved
    • All parties except Nazis were abolished
    • Hitler took complete control
  6. Heinrich Himmler
    • The SS (Schitzstaffeln : Guard Squadrons) was important to maintaining order
    • Was originally created as Hitler's bodyguard
    • Under Himmler's direction, the SS came to control the secret and regular police forces
  7. Nuremberg (rallies)
    • Mass demonstrations and spectacles made the Germans an instrument of Hitler's policies
    • Held every September and usually caused mass excitement and enthusiasm
    • Institutions were brought under Nazi control
    • Professional Nazi organizations were formed for civil servants, teachers, women, farmers, doctors, lawyers, and the youth
  8. Nuremberg laws
    • New racial laws that excluded Jews form German citizenship
    • A Jew was not defined by religion, but if their grandparents were Jewish
    • Marriage between Germans and Jews were forbidden
    • Jews had to wear starts of David and to carry around IDs to say that they were Jewish
  9. Kristallnacht
    • "The night of shattered glass"
    • Nazis burned synagogues and destroyed some 7 thousand Jewish businesses
    • At least 100 Jews were killed
    • 30 thousand Jewish males were sent to concentration camps
    • They were barred from public transport and buildings, including schools and hospitals
    • Prohibited from owning, working, or managing retail stores
    • Jews were forced to clean up all the damage from Kristallnacht
    • Were encouraged to "emigrate from Germany"
  10. The Triumph of the Will
    • A propaganda documentary of the 1934 Nuremberg party rally
    • Filmed by actress-turned-director Leni Riefenstahl
    • Vividly conveyed the ideas of National Socialism
  11. Surrealism--Dali
    • Surrealism movement brought reality beyond the material world and found it in the world of the unconscious
    • Portrayed fantasies, dreams, and nightmares
    • Spaniard Salvador Dali was the high priest of surrealism
    • Place recognizable objects in unrecognizable relationships
    • Created a strange world in which the irrational became visible
    • This type of art was not accepted in Germany and was seen as "the outcome of an impudent and shameless arrogance of a simply shocking lack of skill"
  12. Mohandas Gandhi
    • Became active in the movement for Indian self-rule before WWI
    • Before the war, Indians referred him as the "Great Soul" or Mahatma
    • After the war, Gandhi remained an important figure
  13. Civil disobedience
    • The refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust
    • Gandhi began to organize mass protests to achieve his aims
    • He believed in nonviolence and had protested British laws by using civil disobedience
    • It turned violent and it had a strong British reaction
    • British troops killed hundreds of unarmed protesters and Gandi retreated from active politics when it became violent and spent several years in prison
    • In 1919, Great Britain passed the Govn of India Act which expanded the role of Indians in the governing process
    • 2/3 of its Indian members of the parliament were to be elected
    • 5 million Indians were given the right to vote
  14. Jawaharlal Nehru
    • Studied law in Great Britain and was an example of a new kind of an Indian politician
    • The independence split two ways
    • One identified w/ Gandhi--religious, Indian, traditional
    • The other identified with Nehru--secular, Western, modern
    • This created uncertainty about India's future path
  15. Manchuria
    • 1931, a group of middle-level army officers invaded Manchuria w/o govn approval
    • In a short time, it was conquered
    • Japanese govn opposed the conquest, but the Japanese people supported it
  16. Chiang Kai-shek
    • He pretended that he supported the Communists, but later he struck against them, killing thousands in the Shanghai Massacre
    • 1928, he found a new Chinese republic at Nanjing and worked to reunify China
    • Believed Japan was less dangerous than Communists-- "the Communists are a disease of heart"
  17. Mao Zedong
    • Was convinced the Chinese rev would have to depend on the peasants, not the working class, unlike the rest of the CCP (Chinese Communist Party)
    • Made the peasants the heart and soul of Chinese Communism
  18. Guerrilla tactics
    • Unexpected maneuvers like sabotage and subterfuge
    • Chiang used these tactics
    • "When the enemy advances, we retreat!"
    • "When the enemy halts and camps, we trouble them!"
    • "When the enemy tries to avoid battle, we attack!"
    • "When the enemy retreats, we pursue!"
  19. Long March
    • 1934, Chiang's troops surrounded the Communist base in Jiangxi
    • People Liberation Army (PLA) was Mao's army and were able to break through Nationalist lines by moving on foot 6,000 miles to reach the last Communist base
    • Many froze or starved
    • A year later, Mao's troops reached safely to northern China
    • 9,000 out of 90,000 troops survived
    • Mao considered himself as the heroic and unquestioned leaser of the CCP and had not given up their fight
  20. Redistribution of Wealth
    • Shifting of wealth from a rich minority to a poor majority
    • Chiang's govn oppressed this since it could lead to Communist influence
    • Suppressed all opposition
    • Alienated many intellectuals and political moderates
Card Set
HMWH Unit 6 Part 2
Adolf Hitler, Nazi Party, Reichstag, Enabling Act, Concentration camps, Heinrich Himmler, Nuremberg (rallies), Nuremberg laws, Kristallnacht, The Triumph of the Will, Surrealism-Dali, Mohandas Gandhi, Civil disobedience, Jawaharial Nehru, Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, Guerrilla tactics, Long March, Redistribution of Wealth