Psych Test 1 2016

  1. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Make internal attributions for other peoples behaviors and external for our own
  2. External Attribution Error
    What is going on outside of the person to make sense of what is happening
  3. Internal Attribution Error
    • This is how they are as a person, like being cut off means that person is always the cut off person
    • Dispositional
  4. Why do we act the way we do?
    • The need to feel good about ourselves
    • Self-Esteem
    • Justifying past behavior
    • Suffereing and Self Justification
    • The need to feel we are right/accurate
    • We all need to belong
  5. 3 Commonsense Errors
    • Hindsight Bias - I knew it all along
    • Overconfidence Error - My view is the right view
    • Perceiving order in random events
  6. Methods Used to Make Decisions
    • Observational - Description
    • Correlational - Prediction
    • Experimental - Causality
  7. Observational Method
    • Systematic recording, measure, and interpreting behaviors.
    • Limits: Bias of person collecting data and no power to predict or explain phenomena
  8. Correlational Method
    • The relationship between two variables
    • Benefits: Examine things that may be difficult to observe without statistical analysis
    • Cons:¬†Correlation =/= causation
  9. Correlation coefficient
    • Representing how much you can predict one variable from another
    • Scale/Range [+1.00, -1.00]
  10. Interpreting Correlations
    • INC: Inc in one predicts inc in other
    • DEC: Inc in one predicts dec in other
    • NONE: Inc in one doesn't predict in other
  11. Experimental Method
    • Random assignment to two or more conditions
    • IV - See if something causes change in outcome
    • DV - The outcome
  12. Null Hypothesis
    Something that you are trying to disprove
  13. P Value
    We want a number that is smaller than .05 which means there is less that 5% chance that your findings are due to random chance
  14. Type 1 Error
    Rejecting a null hypothesis when it's true
  15. Type 2 Error
    Accepting the null when it's not true
  16. Basic Research
    • Intellectual curiosity, theory and methods
    • Ex. Does smiling predict happiness?
  17. Applied Research
    • Solving a problem
    • Ex. Will people follow directions to commit atrocities towards others, if they are told to do so?
  18. Social Cognition
    • How we think about ourselves/others
    • Select, interpret, remember
  19. Automatic Thinking
    Non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless
  20. Controlled Thinking
    Conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful
  21. Schemas
    • Very similar to stereotypes
    • Help us navigate the world around us and how we approach people
    • Based on suggestions around us it can influence a schema.
    • Also a form of judgmental heuristic
  22. Self Fulfilling Prophecy
    Our expectations influence our behavior, and then you will act on that behavior, and then that behavior will influence others to act in the way that we expect them to act
  23. Heuristics
    Mental Shortcuts
  24. Availability Heuristic
    Based on how easily an idea comes to mind
  25. Representative Heuristic
    • Based on how similar something is to a typical case.
    • In our minds we have prototypes of people and based on description of someone you can make a judgment based on the characteristics
  26. Base Rate Information
    • Ex. Attending the University College of London tells us that it is most likely a British Student
    • This type is used when other heuristics are not available.
  27. Embodied Cognition
    • Multiple levels of analysis: Schemas based on physical, mental and environmental
    • We can be primed by the sensorimotor feedback of our own bodies.
  28. Primed
    Suggesting an idea that will influence how you think about something temporarily
  29. Korsakov's Syndrome
    Lose the ablility to form new memories
  30. Power of Unconscious thinking
    • "Cocktail Party"
    • Fast
    • Economical¬†
    • Smart
  31. Change Blindness
    • We perceive what we expect to perceive
    • Perception of reality is coherent (what you make sense of) is not an indication of accurate awareness
  32. Analytic Thinking Style
    • Focus on object without considering surrounding
    • Context
    • Common in the west
  33. Holistic Thinking Style
    • Focus on the overall context, relation between objects
    • Common in the east
  34. Automatic Thinking Pitfalls
    • Incomplete picture of reality based on biased information processing.
    • Highly subjective, difficulty establishing common ground
  35. Controlled Thinking
    • Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
    • Ability to decide and act accordingly
  36. Confabulation
    • Something that is unconsciously molding your behavior.
    • - Like a report
    • - Not accurate
    • - Used to rationalize what you did
  37. Counterfactual Thinking
    Thoughts about the way things might have been, if things were different in the past.
  38. Counterfactual Thinking Positive Consequences
    Motivation to improve in future
  39. Counterfactual Thinking Negative Consequences
    • Can lead to rumination
    • - Repetitive focus on negative things (loss of loved one)
    • - Associated with depression
  40. Controlled (Conscious) Thinking Pitfalls
    • Ignoring "gut feeling"
    • Poor use of mental effort
    • - Rumination
    • Overconfidence
  41. Social Perception
    The study of how we form and make impressions of an inferences about other people
  42. Nonverbal Communication
    • The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words.
    • Expressions of emotions, attitudes and personality
  43. Types of Nonverbal Communication
    • Facial Expressions
    • Tone of voice
    • Gestures
    • Body position
    • Movement
    • Use of touch
    • Gaze
  44. Encoding
    • The person who is doing the action like smiling.
    • To express or emit nonverbal behavior
  45. Decoding
    • The person who is seeing the action is the decoding, like the smile.
    • To interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior of others
  46. Six (five?) Primary Emotions
    • Anger
    • Happiness
    • Surprise
    • Fear
    • Disgust
    • Sadness
  47. Other Emotional Expressions
    • Guilt
    • Shame
    • Embarrassment
    • Pride
  48. Implicit Personality Theory
    • Schemas used to categorize others' personality
    • - Observing behavior
    • - Infer feelings, traits, and motives (fill in the blanks)
    • - Use schemas about which personality traits go together in one person
  49. Implicit Personality Theory, Pros and Cons
    • Advantage:
    • - Form impressions quickly
    • Disadvantage:
    • - Make incorrect assumptions
    • - Stereotypical thinking
  50. Attribution Theory
    • We try to determine why people do what they do in order to uncover the feelings and traits that are behind their actions
    • - Helps us understand and predict our social world
  51. How do we infer that causes of people's behavior?
    • Internal - Dispositional
    • External - Situational
  52. Rudimentary Self-Concept
    • Some primates
    • HUmans at age 18-24 months
  53. Child's self-concept
    based on age, sex, neighborhood, and hobbies
  54. Maturing Self-concept
    Based more on psychological states and how others see us
  55. Interdependent View of Self
    • Based on relationships.¬†
    • Behavior is shaped by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
    • Mostly Easter View
  56. Independent View of the Self
    • Based on internal thoughts, feelings, and actions
    • Mostly western view
  57. Relational Interdependence
    • Focus on close relationships
    • Usually the focus of girls in America
  58. Collective Interdependence
    • Focus on memberships in larger groups
    • Usually the focus of boys in America
  59. Introspection
    The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives.
  60. Social Comparison Theory
    We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparison to others
  61. Fixed Mindset
    We have a set amount of an ability, cannot change
  62. Growth Mindset
    Abilities are malleable, we can grow
  63. Self-Perception Theory
    Is this how I act all the time
  64. Intrinsic Motivation
    Based on enjoyment, interest
  65. Extrinsic Motication
    Based on external reasons like reward and punishment
  66. Task Contingent Rewards
    Given regardless of how well the task is done
  67. Performance contingent rewards
    Based on how well we perform an task
  68. Two Factor Theory of Emotion
    • We experience emotions in a two step process.
    • Starts by experiencing physiological arousal then we seek an appropriate explanation for it
  69. Misattribution of Arousal
    The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
  70. Terror Management Theory
    High self-esteem buffers against the threat of thoughts of death
  71. Narcissism
    Combination of excessive self love and a lack of empathy toward others.
  72. Overjustification Theory
    The tendency to view behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, underestimating intrinsic reasons.
Card Set
Psych Test 1 2016
Psych Test 1 2016