Fundamental Attribution Error
Make internal attributions for other peoples behaviors and external for our own
External Attribution Error
What is going on outside of the person to make sense of what is happening
Internal Attribution Error
- This is how they are as a person, like being cut off means that person is always the cut off person
Why do we act the way we do?
- The need to feel good about ourselves
- Justifying past behavior
- Suffereing and Self Justification
- The need to feel we are right/accurate
- We all need to belong
3 Commonsense Errors
- Hindsight Bias - I knew it all along
- Overconfidence Error - My view is the right view
- Perceiving order in random events
Methods Used to Make Decisions
- Observational - Description
- Correlational - Prediction
- Experimental - Causality
- Systematic recording, measure, and interpreting behaviors.
- Limits: Bias of person collecting data and no power to predict or explain phenomena
- The relationship between two variables
- Benefits: Examine things that may be difficult to observe without statistical analysis
- Cons: Correlation =/= causation
- Representing how much you can predict one variable from another
- Scale/Range [+1.00, -1.00]
- INC: Inc in one predicts inc in other
- DEC: Inc in one predicts dec in other
- NONE: Inc in one doesn't predict in other
- Random assignment to two or more conditions
- IV - See if something causes change in outcome
- DV - The outcome
Something that you are trying to disprove
We want a number that is smaller than .05 which means there is less that 5% chance that your findings are due to random chance
Type 1 Error
Rejecting a null hypothesis when it's true
Type 2 Error
Accepting the null when it's not true
- Intellectual curiosity, theory and methods
- Ex. Does smiling predict happiness?
- Solving a problem
- Ex. Will people follow directions to commit atrocities towards others, if they are told to do so?
- How we think about ourselves/others
- Select, interpret, remember
Non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless
Conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful
- Very similar to stereotypes
- Help us navigate the world around us and how we approach people
- Based on suggestions around us it can influence a schema.
- Also a form of judgmental heuristic
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
Our expectations influence our behavior, and then you will act on that behavior, and then that behavior will influence others to act in the way that we expect them to act
Based on how easily an idea comes to mind
- Based on how similar something is to a typical case.
- In our minds we have prototypes of people and based on description of someone you can make a judgment based on the characteristics
Base Rate Information
- Ex. Attending the University College of London tells us that it is most likely a British Student
- This type is used when other heuristics are not available.
- Multiple levels of analysis: Schemas based on physical, mental and environmental
- We can be primed by the sensorimotor feedback of our own bodies.
Suggesting an idea that will influence how you think about something temporarily
Lose the ablility to form new memories
Power of Unconscious thinking
- "Cocktail Party"
- We perceive what we expect to perceive
- Perception of reality is coherent (what you make sense of) is not an indication of accurate awareness
Analytic Thinking Style
- Focus on object without considering surrounding
- Common in the west
Holistic Thinking Style
- Focus on the overall context, relation between objects
- Common in the east
Automatic Thinking Pitfalls
- Incomplete picture of reality based on biased information processing.
- Highly subjective, difficulty establishing common ground
- Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
- Ability to decide and act accordingly
- Something that is unconsciously molding your behavior.
- - Like a report
- - Not accurate
- - Used to rationalize what you did
Thoughts about the way things might have been, if things were different in the past.
Counterfactual Thinking Positive Consequences
Motivation to improve in future
Counterfactual Thinking Negative Consequences
- Can lead to rumination
- - Repetitive focus on negative things (loss of loved one)
- - Associated with depression
Controlled (Conscious) Thinking Pitfalls
- Ignoring "gut feeling"
- Poor use of mental effort
- - Rumination
The study of how we form and make impressions of an inferences about other people
- The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words.
- Expressions of emotions, attitudes and personality
Types of Nonverbal Communication
- Facial Expressions
- Tone of voice
- Body position
- Use of touch
- The person who is doing the action like smiling.
- To express or emit nonverbal behavior
- The person who is seeing the action is the decoding, like the smile.
- To interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior of others
Six (five?) Primary Emotions
Other Emotional Expressions
Implicit Personality Theory
- Schemas used to categorize others' personality
- - Observing behavior
- - Infer feelings, traits, and motives (fill in the blanks)
- - Use schemas about which personality traits go together in one person
Implicit Personality Theory, Pros and Cons
- - Form impressions quickly
- - Make incorrect assumptions
- - Stereotypical thinking
- We try to determine why people do what they do in order to uncover the feelings and traits that are behind their actions
- - Helps us understand and predict our social world
How do we infer that causes of people's behavior?
- Internal - Dispositional
- External - Situational
- Some primates
- HUmans at age 18-24 months
based on age, sex, neighborhood, and hobbies
Based more on psychological states and how others see us
Interdependent View of Self
- Based on relationships.
- Behavior is shaped by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
- Mostly Easter View
Independent View of the Self
- Based on internal thoughts, feelings, and actions
- Mostly western view
- Focus on close relationships
- Usually the focus of girls in America
- Focus on memberships in larger groups
- Usually the focus of boys in America
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives.
Social Comparison Theory
We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparison to others
We have a set amount of an ability, cannot change
Abilities are malleable, we can grow
Is this how I act all the time
Based on enjoyment, interest
Based on external reasons like reward and punishment
Task Contingent Rewards
Given regardless of how well the task is done
Performance contingent rewards
Based on how well we perform an task
Two Factor Theory of Emotion
- We experience emotions in a two step process.
- Starts by experiencing physiological arousal then we seek an appropriate explanation for it
Misattribution of Arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
Terror Management Theory
High self-esteem buffers against the threat of thoughts of death
Combination of excessive self love and a lack of empathy toward others.
The tendency to view behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, underestimating intrinsic reasons.