exploring music baroque quiz

  1. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE
    BAROQUE
    • Critical assessment by historians of the music, art,
    • architecture of the period
    • • Considered heavily ornamented, overelaborate,
    • extravagant, bizarre
    • • Period between the Renaissance and Classical music periods
  2. THE BAROQUE IN ART
    • • Sparked by The Council of Trent - 1545
    • • Response by Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation
    • • How to redefine/reinvent Catholic Church and teach Catholics more about their faith
    • • Huge effect on the arts
    • • Art should be used to explain Catholicism to EVERYONE, not only the educated
  3. Religious art needed to be:
    • Direct
    • • Emotionally persuasive
    • • Powerful
    • • All to inspire greater faith and imagination
  4. WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN BAROQUE ART
    • Images are direct, obvious, and dramatic
    • • Tries to draw the viewer in to participate in the scene
    • • Depictions feel physically and psychologically real
    • • Emotionally intense
    • • Extravagant settings and ornamentation
    • • Dramatic use of color
    • • Dramatic contrasts between light and dark light and shadow
    • • As opposed to Renaissance art with its clearly defined planes, each figure placed in
    • isolation from each other, Baroque art has continuous overlapping of figures and elements
  5. Common themes
    • elaborate visions
    • ecstasies and conversions
    • martyrdom and death
    • intense light
    • intense psychological moments
  6. THE ECSTASY OF ST. TERESA
    BY GIOVANNI LORENZO BERNINI, 1652
    • Theme: The moment when the divine meets the earthly
    • • Depicts St. Teresa
    • • A mystic nun
    • • Claimed to have had a celestial experience
    • • Angel came down, pierced St. Teresa’s innards with an arrow of divine love
    • • Great but sweet pain, connection to the divine
    • • Use of light:
    • • Wooden rays come down and lit by yellow paneled window above the
    • sculpture
  7. THE CONVERSION ON THE WAY TO DAMASCUS
    BY CARAVAGGIO, 1601
    • Theme: Divine entering earthly world
    • • Use of shadow and light
    • • Saul (soon to be Apostle Paul) knocked off his horse by
    • God’s light
    • • Arms stretch out to accept light
    • • Man and horse deep in shadow (part of ordinary
    • earthly world, not part of the full divine experience)
  8. TRILL
    Notes next to each other played in alternation very rapidly
  9. Homophony
    • One voice is more important than the others
    • • One instrumental voice could convey a melody more effectively
    • • One singing voice could better express the thoughts of a single character
    • • Led to emergence of OPERA
  10. AFFECT
    Expressing one particular emotion
  11. MUSIC AND THE CHURCH
    Giant grand churches, lavishly decorated
  12. Baroque organs
    • Powerful sound, variety of timbres
    • • Very expensive
    • • Toccata and Fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach
  13. Music as way to teach church doctrine
    • Central musical themes with elaborate structure around it
    • • Listeners could follow the melody and be uplifted by fullness of the overall sound
    • • Bach’s Cantata no. 140, Awake, A Voice Calls to Us
  14. OPERA AND ORATORIO
    • Earliest operas performed in private theaters at royal courts
    • •First public opera houses opened in Venice - 1637
    • •Opera became big business
  15. Impresario
    Person who organizes and sometimes finances operas, concerts, or plays
  16. Oratorios:
    • • Large work for orchestra, choir and soloists, often with a religious focus
    • •Catholic Church forbade opera during Lent
    • • Impresarios booked singers and instrumentalists for oratorios
  17. THE VIRTUOSO
    • Brilliant instrumental and vocal soloists
    • • Composers wrote difficult and demanding music
    • • Performers expected to embellish the basic melody
  18. Castrati
    • Some were Baroque equivalent of millionaires
    • • The epitome of vocal beauty
    • • Farinelli (Carlo Broschi) most famous castrato of 18th century
  19. EARLY DAYS OF OPERA
    • Florence, Italy, early 17th century
    • • Small group of musicians, philosophers, and poets met
    • • Tried to come up with a way to revive the combination
    • of music and drama practiced by Ancient Greeks
    • • Result was opera
  20. OPERA
    A composition for the stage (drama, comedy, etc) sung from beginning to end
  21. Basso continuo
    • Continuous bass. Group of instruments that accompany the singing
    • • Play continuously, provide a bass line and harmonies to support the
    • melody above
  22. RECITATIVE
    • Derives from word “recite”
    • • Somewhere between singing and speaking
    • • Syllabic setting of text
    • • Good for clarity
    • • Similar to plainchant but with instrumental
    • accompaniment
  23. CHORUS
    • Polyphonic texture
    • • Expresses reactions/emotions of multiple people at
    • once
    • • Like a chorus in Greek tragedy
    • • Periodically responds to events
  24. ORPHEUS ( L’ORFEO) BY CLAUDIO
    MONTEVERDI
    • Earliest known Italian opera
    • • Based on Ancient Greek myth of Orpheus and
    • Euridice
    • • Contains highly varied music - songs for soloists,
    • chorus, instrumental music for dancers
  25. CLAUDIO
    MONTEVERDI
    • 1567-1643
    • • Master of old and new styles of
    • composition
    • • 1607: composed L’Orfeo, first
    • successful opera
    • • 1613: Became director of music at St.
    • Mark’s Basilica in Venice.
    • • Remained in Venice the rest of his life
    • • Constantly experimenting with styles
    • • Wrote for elite and public audiences
  26. DIDO AND AENEAS BY HENRY PURCELL
    • Plot: Foreign prince (Aeneas) promises to marry the
    • Queen of Carthage (Dido) but abandons her. She is
    • driven to suicide
    • • Earliest performances shrouded in mystery (c.
    • 1685-1689)
    • • Possibly suppressed by the English king
  27. OVERTURE
    • Musical way to get audience to settle down
    • • Purely instrumental
  28. French overture
    • 2 sections
    • Slow introduction with LONG-short LONG short”
    • pattern
    • • Fast section with imitation among different
    • instruments
  29. ARIA
    • A piece for solo voice with instrumental
    • accompaniment
    • • “Air” or “melody”
  30. OSTINATO
    • Short pattern of notes repeated over and over
    • • Ground bass - ostinato in bass part
  31. ANTONIO
    VIVALDI
    • “The Red Priest”
    • • Violin virtuoso and prolific composer
    • of more than 350 solo concertos
    • • Dozens of operas on range of
    • subjects and themes
    • • Spent most of his life in Italy, later on
    • touring as composer and musician in
    • Europe
    • • Admired by musicians all over Europe
    • • Died in poverty after a risky move to
    • Vienna
  32. ANTONIO VIVALDI -
    THE FOUR SEASONS: WINTER, 1ST MOVEMENT
    • Concerto for solo violin and stringAllowed for contrast between solo instruments and rest of
    • ensemble - popular during Baroque period
    • • Displays of virtuosity
    • • Evokes sounds of winter
    • • Inspired by text (by Vivaldi?) describing ice, snow, wind, chattering
    • teeth, stamping feet
  33. Concerto
    • instrumental composition for soloist and larger
    • ensemble
  34. Ritornello
    • Italian for “little return
    • name for statement and return of the full ensemble
    • in a composition alternating between soloists and
    • orchestra
  35. Ritornello Principle
    • Formal design of alternating solo
    • and ritornello sections
  36. Key area
    • a set of harmonies all with a distinctive relationship to
    • one particular note, known as the tonic
  37. PROGRAM MUSIC
    • instrumental music explicitly connected in some way
    • with a story, person, or idea outside the music itself
  38. FUGUE
    • Polyphonic work based on a central theme
    • • “Fugue” —-> “fugitive” —> voices chase and pursue
    • one another
    • • Considered the mark of a talented composer
    • • Theme begins in one voice
    • • Imitated by all over voices in succession
    • • Each voice presents its own statement of the theme
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exploring music baroque quiz
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Exploring music baroque quiz
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