- 5. Stratum corneum: most superficial and consists of cornified cells. Furthest away.
- 4. Stratum lucidum: Thin, clear zone. Found only in palms and soles [thick skin].
- 3. Stratum granulosum: Contains keratohyalin. In superficial layers nucleus and other organelles degenerate and cell begins to die.
- 2. Stratum spinosum: Limited cell division. Desmosomes. Lamellar bodies and additional keratin fibers.
- 1. Stratum basale: Hemidesmosome anchors basale membrane. Deepest portion of epidermis and single layer. High mitotic activity and cells starts to become keratinized (keratin fiber).
- Cells found in the epidermis
- Keratinocytes: Produce keratin
most superficial and consists of cornified cells. Furthest away.
Thin, clear zone. Found only in palms and soles. Thick skin not loose skin.
Limite cell division. Desmosomes. Lamellat bodies and additional keratin fibers.
Hemidesmosome anchors basale membrane. Deepest portion of epidermis and single layer. High mitotic activity and cell starts to become keratinized (keratin fiber).
- Cell types found in the epidermis.
- Keratinocytes: produce keratin.
- Melanocytes: skin color.
- Langerhan's cell: part of immune system.
- Merkel's cell (disk): superficial touch. detect light touch.
cells of the deeper layers undergo mitosis; as they move toward the surface, older cells slough off.
as cells move outward through layers they fill with keratin die, and serve as a layer that resist abrasion and forms impermeability layer.
2 layers of the dermis
- Papillary layer of the dermis: superficial outer (1/5). Fingerprints.
- Reticular layer of the dermis: Deep (inner) 4/5. Hair follicles, nerves, oil glands, ducts of seat glands.
- Merocrine sweat gland: most common.
- Apocrine sweat gland: highly active around puberty.
- Ceruminous gland: Cerumen (earwax).
- First degree: only epidermis, pain, usually no scar. only epidermis.
- Second degree: blistering. epidermis and upper dermis. some scarring.
- Third degree: no pain. destroys epidermis and dermis. nerve endings are destroyed.
Rule of Nine
[Burn surface area]
- Head & Neck: 9% (front & back)
- Anterior Torso: 18% (9% upper & 9% lower)
- Posterior Torso: 18% (9% upper & 9% lower)
- Upper Extremity: (9% each (4.5 front & 4.5% back)
- Lower Extremity: 18% each (9% front & 9% back)
- Genitals: 1%
- Basal cell carcinoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Malignant melanoma
- A: symetrical, line through center, mirror each side.
- B: borders irregular.
- C: color changer, dark to light short period of time.
- D: diameter increase.
- E: evenly, constantly evolving.