Classification and Biodiversity

  1. What is classification?
    it is the way in which living organisms are divided into groups
  2. What is taxonomy?
    It is the scientific process of grouping organisms based on shared characteristics
  3. What sources of evidence do modern day classification systems group organisms based on excluding the observable features? (5)
    • Fossil records
    • Cell ultrastructure
    • Biochemistry
    • Molecular biology
    • Behaviour
  4. What does hierarchical mean?
    • It consists of;
    • large groups that are divided into progressively smaller groups
    • no overlap between the groups
  5. What is Phylogeny?
    It is the study of evolutionary history of organisms.
  6. What are the eight main taxonomic ranks in the Hierarchical System?
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum (pl. =phyla)
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus (pl. genera)
    • Species
  7. What is the order of the Hierarchical System?
    It is listed in the descending order of size so that the Domain is the largest group and species contain the fewest organisms.
  8. What does non-overlapping mean?
    It means that each organism can only appear in one group at a particular taxonomic level.
  9. What are the six kingdoms that all living organisms are classified under?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Protoctista
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Animals
  10. Where does the biological name of a species come from?
    It is derived from its genus name followed by its species name (a binomial naming system).
  11. What is the phylogenetic system?
    It reflects evolutionary relationship between organisms by looking at similarities and differences in structure and function.
  12. How are relationships presented in the Phylogenetic System?
    In a digram called a phylogenetic tree.

    The oldest species are at the base of the tree and the most recent ones are represented by the ends of the tree.
  13. What does each branch represent on a Phylogenetic tree?
    Where divergence occurred (where a common ancestor evolves to become a new species)
  14. What does the distance of the branches in a phylogenetic tree represent?
    How close the evolutionary relationship is; the closer the branches, the closer the evolutionary relationship therefore the more recently they shared a common ancestor
Card Set
Classification and Biodiversity
AQA Biology Topic 4B - Diversity, Classification and Variation