Criminal Justice part 2

  1. Frankpledge
    a system in which members of a tithing pledge to be responsible for keeping order and bringing violators of the law to court
  2. watch system
    the practice of assigning individuals to night observation duty to warn the public of fires and crime
  3. slave patrols
    law enforcement in the south to catch and control slaves
  4. sheriff
    top law enforcement official in county government who was an exceptionally important police official during westward expansion
  5. U.S. marshall
    federal law enforcement official that handle duties in western territories
  6. community policing
    close personal contact between police and citizens and the inclusion of citizens in efforts to solve problems
  7. problem-oriented policing
    community policing strategy that emphasizes solving problems of disorder in a neighborhood
  8. Law enforcement certification
    preservice training required for sworn officers
  9. socialization
    the process by which rules, symbols, and values, of a group are learned by its members
  10. subculture
    the symbols, beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by members of a subgroup of the larger society
  11. working personality
    a set of characteristics developed due to work situations and evironmental influences
  12. order maintenance
    the police of function of preventing behavior that disturbs or threatens to disturb the public peace
  13. law enforcement
    police function of controlling crime by intervening in situations in which the law has been violated
  14. service
    the police function of providing assistance to the public, usually in matters unrelated to crime
  15. police bureaucracy
    the organizational description of police departments' design and operation that seek to achieve efficiency through division of labor, chain of command, and rules to guide staff
  16. patrol units
    units of local police departments that deploy uniformed officers to handle police functions
  17. watchman style
    style of policing that emphasizes order maintenance and tolerates minor violations of law
  18. legalistic style
    style of policing that emphasizes strict enforcement of laws and reduces officers' authority to handle matters informally
  19. service style
    officer's cater to citizen's desire for favorable treatment and sensitivity to individual situations
  20. civilian review board
    citizens' commmittee formed to investigate complaints against the police
  21. Commission on Accredivation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA)
    organization formed to develop standards for police policies and practice
  22. Section 1983
    Civil Law suits authorized by a federal statute against the state and local officials and local agencies when citizens have evidence that these people have violated their federal constitutional rights
  23. Evidence-based policing
    the deployment of police personnel and development of police strategies based on results from social science studies
  24. incident-driven policing
    policing in which calls for service are the primary instigators of actions
  25. differential response
    A patrol strategy that assigns priorities to calls for service and chooses the appropriate response
  26. Compstat
    meetings of policemen where they discuss crime stats and goals for problem solving and crime prevention
  27. clearance rate
    percentage of crimes known to the police that they believed have been solved by an arrest
  28. preventive patrol
    making the police presents known, to deter crime, make officers readily available to respond to calls
  29. SROs
    School resource officers
  30. directed patrol
    a proactive form of patrolling that directs resources to known high-crime areas
  31. aggressive patrol
    a patrol strategy designed to maximize number of police interventions and observations in the community
  32. community crime prevention
    programs where criminal justice officials create relations with and rely on assistance of citizens in preventing crime and apprehending offenders within the neighborhood
  33. What are the four functions of police agencies?
    • Maintain order
    • Enforce Laws
    • Provide services to the community
    • Prevent Crime
  34. What are the 5 police agencies?
    • Federal Law
    • State
    • County
    • Municipal
    • Native American Tribal Police
  35. What are the operational units of police departments?
    • Patrol
    • Investigation
    • Traffic
    • Vice
    • Juvenile
  36. E. Bittner's Approach of policemen
    • law is just pretext
    • could be used for something its not meant for (screwdrive)
    • policemen have the most discretion
  37. Two possible natures of police actions
    • Retroactive: prosecution of crimes
    • Preventive: guarding against threats to public safety or order
  38. Five important factors in police discretion
    • Nature of the crime
    • Relationship between the suspect and victim
    • Relationship between police and criminal or victim
    • Race/ethinicity, age, gender, class
    • Departmental Policy
  39. Two sections of delivery of police services
    • Line Functions: Field operations, carry out the basic functions of patrol, investigation, traffic, vice,juvenile, etc.
    • Staff Function: supplement or support the line function
  40. Three types of delivery
    Patrol, Investigation, Special Operations
  41. Patrol Functions
    • answering calls for help
    • maintaining police presence
    • probing suspicious circumstances
  42. Four components of Community policing
    • Community based crime prevention
    • Changing focus to non emergency services
    • Making Police accountable to public
    • Decentralize decision making to include residents
  43. Zero tolerance
    • no tolerance for broken windows 
    • automatic punishments for infractions of a stated role
    • Limit police discretion
  44. When was Zero Tolerance idea first introduced
    Safe & Clean Neighborhoods Act, approved in New Jersey 1973
  45. Criticism of Zero tolerance
    • not very strong evidence that it worked
    • works against community policing 
    • could target the poor
  46. 7 Principles of Effective processing
    • Physical evidence solves crimes
    • Appearances may be deceiving
    • Everything must be questioned 
    • Think about evidence you can't see
    • Do it right the first time
    • Proceed Slowly
    • Understand the influences of Assumptions
Card Set
Criminal Justice part 2
CJ stuff mostly about police