Global Climate Change Exam 1

  1. Scientific method
    • 1. Obersve
    • 2. Question
    • 3. Hypothesize
    • 4. Predict
    • 5. Test
    • 6. Draw a Conclusion
  2. Climate literacy
    • 1. The sun is the primary energy source for Earth's climate system
    • 2. Climate is regulated by complex interactions among components in Earth's system
    • 3. Life on Earth depends, affects and is shaped by climate
    • 4. Climate varies over space & time through natural & human processes 
    • 5. Our understanding on climate is improved upon through observations & experiments
    • 6. Humans have had an impact on Earth's climate system
  3. Climate vs. Weather
    • Weather: What conditions the atmosphere has over a short period of time
    • Climate: How the atmosphere behaves over a long period of time
  4. UNEP
    United Nations Environment Program
  5. WMO
    World Meteorological Association
  6. IPCC
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  7. Four options for addressing climate change
    • Mitigation
    • Adaptation
    • Geoengineering/Climate engineering
    • Knowledge based expansion
  8. Heat Island Effect
    The effect concrete and pavements has on temperature which cause large urban areas to heat up and stay warm longer
  9. Two types of radiation
    • Shortwave radiation = sunlight
    • longwave radiation = Earth's heat (thermal)
  10. Detection vs. Attribution studies
    • Detection: establishes whether or not unusual climate patterns have occurred
    • Attribution: finding the likelihood that certain favors are involved
  11. El Niño vs. La Niña
    • El Niño: warmth held in the pacific ocean flows into the atmosphere, causing global temperatures to rise
    • La Niña: the pacific ocean draws more heat than usual from the global atmosphere
  12. RCP
    • Representative Concentration Pathways: greenhouse gas emission trajectories that predict global temp increases depending on the amount of CO2 being emitted
    • During 2081-2100:
    • RCP 2.6 hottest day will increase by 1.5-2 C 
    • RCP 8.5 hottest day will increase by 5-6 C
  13. Composition of the atmosphere
    The Earth is mostly made up of Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (20%)
  14. Albedo
    • the fraction of solar energy (shortwave radiation) reflected from the Earth back into space.
    • High albedo = Snow
    • Low albedo = freshwater
  15. Biomass
    the total mass of organic matter in living organisms in a reservoir
  16. CFC's
    Chlorofluorocarbons, banned in the Montreal Protocol. In the atmosphere they can break up into chlorine, which rapidly destroys ozone.
  17. Keeling curve
    A curve created by Charles Keeling that shows CO2's longevity and the rising amount the Earth has had over time. It also shows how CO2 levels rise in the fall and decrease in the spring
  18. Radiative forcing
    • the change in average net radiation at the top of the troposphere
    • Positive forcing warms the surface
    • Negative forcing cools the surface
  19. IPCC Working groups
    • 1. Physical science
    • 2. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability
    • 3. mitigation
  20. Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation
    An oceanic process caused by differences in temperature and salinity of water. As Ice caps melt, this process could be disrupted over time
  21. Climate Change's impact on floods & droughts
    As the climate begins to rise, there is an increase in evaporation which creates greater droughts and more intense rainfalls.
  22. European heatwave of 2003
    • Record breaking heat waves were achieved including:
    • 104.7 - Roth, Germany
    • 106.7 - Grono, Switzerland
    • 117.1 - Amareleja, Protugal
Card Set
Global Climate Change Exam 1
Study guide for the MTR 1600 Global Climate Change class