psychology chapter 6

  1. self-concept
    all encompassing, may contain many identities
  2. self-schema
    label that may carry with it many qualities (athlete is strong, youthful)
  3. androgyny
    • simultaneously very masculine and very feminine
    • undifferentiated (neither)
  4. nationality
    based on political borders, a result of shared history, media, symbols
  5. ethnic
    common ancestry, cultural heritage and language
  6. hierarchy of salience
    • we let theĀ situation dictate which identity holds the most importance for us
    • the more salient the identity, the more we conform to the role expectation of the identities
  7. self-discrepancy theory
    • we ave three selves (actual, ideal and ought-how others think we should be)
    • closer these three selves are, the higher our self-esteem is
  8. learned helplessness
    no control over situation, helpless to avoid the pain even if offered the opportunity to avoid being shocked
  9. locus of control
    • external: it was a stupid question
    • internal: i didn't train hard enough
  10. Freud's psychosexual development
    drive reduction theory: libidinal energy creates internal tension and our actions aim to reduce it
  11. fixation according to freud
    child is overindulged or overly frustrated during a stage of development
  12. what would freud, erikson and kohlberg say if an individual fails to complete a stage
    • freud: fixated and will display personality traits of that fixation for the rest of his or her life
    • erikson: still move through phases but lack the necessary skills if stage was resolved
    • kohlverg: incapable of reasoning at that level, will use reasoning in previous stage
  13. freud psychosexual theory derives from
    conflict between societal demands and desire to reduce the libidinal tension
  14. erikson's psychosocial development as a result of
    conflicts between needs and social demands
  15. kohlberg moral reasoning
    development of moral thinking
  16. vygotsky
    • engine driving cognitive development is the child's internalization of various aspects of culture
    • zone of proximal development: skills and abilities that have not yet fully developed (in process)
  17. theory of mind
    ability to sense how another's mind works
  18. looking glass self
    others reflecting our selves back to ourselves
  19. categories of theories of personality
    • psychoanalytic
    • humanistic
    • type and traitĀ 
    • behaviorist
  20. functional autonomy
    behavior continues despite satisfaction of the drive that originally created the behavior (hunting continues after food is abundant)
  21. social cognitive
    • not only does our environment influence our behavior, but also how we interact with the environment also impacts our behavior
    • people find environments that suit their personality and their personalities determine how they will feel about and react t events in those environments
  22. behavior is primarily determined by
    • personality (dispositional approach)
    • or environment and context (situational approach)
  23. self concept
    • the ways in which we describe ourselves, our present, past and future
    • the ought self is our appraisal of how others see us (not self-concept)
  24. what is the trait of conscientiousness
    hardworking and organized instead of impulsive
  25. unconditional positive regard
    in humanistic therapy in which therapist believes in the internal good of the client and does not judge the client negatively for any words or action
  26. biological perspective of personality
    • link between genetics and behavior
    • social cognitive perspective holds that people's behaviors and traits shape their environments.
  27. conclusions about role taking and observational learning
    • teens get most influence from peers
    • kids don't learn from parents
    • children engage in behavior modeled by individuals who are like themselves
  28. fixation in anal stage of psychosexual development
    can lead to excessive organization or excessive sloppiness.
  29. learned helplessness
    repeated inability to have any effect on a situation over a long period of time. can lead to depression
Card Set
psychology chapter 6
identity and personality