BIMM 120 CH 7

  1. What is vertical transmission of gene transfer?
    Parent to child
  2. What is horizontal transmission of gene transfer?
    pieces of DNA from one cell to another
  3. structural gene
    produces functional RNA
  4. DNA control sequence
    regulates expression of structural gene
  5. DNA size of bacteria and archaea
  6. DNA size of eukaryotes
    2900-100M kb
  7. DNA size of humans
    3M kb
  8. What are operons?
    Genes w/ related functions that need to be expressed together
  9. What are regulons?
    different genes or operons controlled by the same transcription factor
  10. What do histone-like proteins do?
    help compact DNA in the nucleoid
  11. What is an example of a topoisomerase and what drug is it targeted by?
    DNA gyrase; quinolone antibiotics
  12. What is an example of a quinolone antibiotic and what is it used for?
    ciprofloxacin, anthrax
  13. What does DNA pol III and DNA pol I do?
    • III: replication enzyme with proofreading activity
    • I: replaces RNA primers with DNA
  14. Eukaryotes or prokaryotes have more noncoding DNA?
    • Eukaryotes (>90%)
    • Prokaryotes (<15%)
  15. What do transcription factors do?
    Recognize specific DNA sequences and control gene expression
  16. DnaA
    initiator protein
  17. DnaB
  18. DNA primase
    synthesis of RNA primers
  19. DNA gyrase
    relieves supercoiling
  20. What protein tethers DNA polymerase to the DNA? What happens without it?
    sliding clamp protein; without it, the DNA would fall off
  21. bi-directional vs rolling circle replication
    occurs in two directions vs one direction
  22. How do plasmids ensure inheritance with low-copy-number plasmids and high-copy-number plasmids?
    • low-copy: equally divided to daughter cells
    • high-copy: randomly distributed
  23. Advantages of plasmids
    • antibiotic resistance
    • symbiosis
    • pathogenesis (provides food for the bacterium)
  24. four similarities of archaea and bacteria
    • asexual reproduction
    • polygenic operons
    • lack of nucleus
    • singular circular chromosome
  25. what are shuttle vectors?
    plasmids that can replicate in at least two different organisms
  26. whole-genome shotgun sequencing
    • genome is broken into thousands of pieces, which are all sequenced
    • computer determines sequence overlapsĀ to recreate the entire genome sequence
  27. metagenomics
    used to study microbial communities in organisms or different environments
Card Set
BIMM 120 CH 7
bimm 120