BIMM 120 CH 7
What is vertical transmission of gene transfer?
Parent to child
What is horizontal transmission of gene transfer?
pieces of DNA from one cell to another
produces functional RNA
DNA control sequence
regulates expression of structural gene
DNA size of bacteria and archaea
DNA size of eukaryotes
DNA size of humans
What are operons?
Genes w/ related functions that need to be expressed together
What are regulons?
different genes or operons controlled by the same transcription factor
What do histone-like proteins do?
help compact DNA in the nucleoid
What is an example of a topoisomerase and what drug is it targeted by?
DNA gyrase; quinolone antibiotics
What is an example of a quinolone antibiotic and what is it used for?
What does DNA pol III and DNA pol I do?
: replication enzyme with proofreading activity
: replaces RNA primers with DNA
Eukaryotes or prokaryotes have more noncoding DNA?
What do transcription factors do?
Recognize specific DNA sequences and control gene expression
synthesis of RNA primers
What protein tethers DNA polymerase to the DNA? What happens without it?
sliding clamp protein; without it, the DNA would fall off
bi-directional vs rolling circle replication
occurs in two directions vs one direction
How do plasmids ensure inheritance with low-copy-number plasmids and high-copy-number plasmids?
: equally divided to daughter cells
: randomly distributed
Advantages of plasmids
pathogenesis (provides food for the bacterium)
four similarities of archaea and bacteria
lack of nucleus
singular circular chromosome
what are shuttle vectors?
plasmids that can replicate in at least two different organisms
whole-genome shotgun sequencing
genome is broken into thousands of pieces, which are all sequenced
computer determines sequence overlaps to recreate the entire genome sequence
used to study microbial communities in organisms or different environments
BIMM 120 CH 7