MSD: Neurology of Speech

  1. Motor speech planning and programming
    The selection, sequencing and regulation of sensorimotor "programs" that activate speech muscles.
  2. Neuromuscular execution
    the neuro and neuromuscular transmission and subsequent muscle contractions and movements of speech structures
  3. Dysarthria
    a group of neurologic speech disorders that reflect abnormalities in strength speed range steadiness tone or accuracy of movements. The brain gives the right program but the muscles and structures can not do it.  Feedback could also be a problem
  4. Apraxia
    neurologic speech disorder that reflects an impaired capacity to plan or program sensori motor commands. A temporal relationship disorder
  5. MSD
    speech disorders resulting from neurologic impairments affecting the programming planning control or execution of speech
  6. 5 relevant neurologic characteristizing features of a MSD
    • 1. age at onset
    • 2.course: chronic, congenital, stationary?
    • of lesion
    • 4. Neurologic diagnosis: degenerative, inflammatory
    • 5. pathophysiology: the pattern of deficits
  7. Variables relevant to an MSD for SLPs (3)
    • 1. speech components involved
    • 2. Severity
    • 3. perceptual characteristics
  8. Why study MSDs? (4)
    • 1. they are very common
    • 2. May signal onset of neurological disease
    • 3. can be managed
    • 4. gives us insight into neurology of normal speech
  9. info gained from Differential diagnosis of MSDs (4)
    • 1. Tells us where the breakdown could be in the nervous system
    • 2. may help us localize a lesion
    • 3.leads to better management or treatment plan
    • 4. functionally what is happening + what we know about the nervous system= how we devise a treatment plan
  10. Visceral systems
    Hypothalamus, parts of limbic system, RF, it is our internal regulation system
  11. Ventricular system
    Makes CSF, cushions the CNS, provides nutrients
  12. Vascular system
    life blood of the nervous system
  13. consciousness system
    Include the RF, and its ascending projections, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and all other lobes. It is crucial for wakefulness, attention and awareness of environment
  14. Localizations (3)
    • Focal: a single area
    • Multifocal: more than one area
    • Diffuse: involving roughly symmetric areas of the nervous system bilaterally
  15. Development of symptoms (3)
    • 1. acute: within minutes
    • 2. Subacute: within days
    • 3. chronic: within months
  16. evolution after symptoms (5)
    • 1. Transient: symptoms resolve completely
    • 2. Improving: severity reduced symptoms still present
    • 3. progressive: symptoms continue to progress or new ones appear
    • 4. Exacerbating/remitting: symptoms develop, resolve and then come back worse
    • 5.Stationary(chronic): symptoms remain unchanged
  17. Degenerative disease
    a gradual decline in neuronal function. Is of unknown cause. most often chronic, progressive and diffuse
  18. Inflammatory disease
    inflammatory response to a toxin or immunologic response. Usually subacute. many are progressive and diffuse
  19. toxic metabolic disease
    deficiencies in the body. diffuse and can be acute, subacute or chorinc
  20. neoplastic diseases
  21. Trauma
    onset acute and diffuse
  22. Vascular disease
    sudden onset focal
Card Set
MSD: Neurology of Speech
MSD general