1. Clostridium septicum (gram staining, shape, aerobe/anaerobe, spores, etc.)
    Gram +, rod shaped, obligate anaerobe, spore former
  2. Streptococcus equi ssp equi characteristics
    Gram +, cocci; beta-hemolytic
  3. Cause of strangles in horses
    Streptococcus equi ssp. equi
  4. How are Streptococcus organisms spread?
    aerosol, direct contact, fomites
  5. Commensals of mucous membranes (upper respiratory, genital, digestive tract) in most warm blooded animals. Needs blood or serum for growth. Causes pyogenic infections, lymphadenitis. (name genus)
  6. Contagious species of Streptococcus transmitted by carriers
    S. equi ssp. equi
  7. alpha-hemolytic bacteria are
  8. This species of Streptococcus causes tonsilitis in humans and dogs are transient hosts
    S. pyogenes
  9. Streptococcus pyogenes causes
    tonsilitis in humans
  10. Bastard strangles causes _____. Why is it worse than regular strangles?
    metastatic abscessation at any site, can't see abscesses to lance them
  11. Necrotizing vasculitis with edema associated with circulating immune complexes of IgA and M protein
    purpura hemorrhagica
  12. Strangles can cause this when antibodies develop to a specific myosin-binding protein
    immune-mediated myopathy
  13. Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is shed for how long? Chronic carriers can shed it for how long?
    2-3 weeks up to 6 weeks, up to 56 months to years
  14. Strangles is diagnosed by
    • Culture - nasal swab
    • PCR
    • ELISA - M protein
  15. Strong virulence factor for Streptococcus equi ssp. equi
    M protein
  16. Treatment for Strangles with lymphadenopathy, fever, anorexia, dyspnea
  17. Treatment for Strangles with lymphadenopathy, horse is still eating, no dyspnea
    • Antibiotics contraindicated
    • Speed up drainage of abscess (heat pack, surgical)
    • Flush open abscess
  18. Vaccine for strangles should be given how often?
    Every 6 months
  19. The most common pyogenic agent of horses is:
    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus
  20. True/False, Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus is part of the normal flora.
  21. Strep zoo causes what kind of infections
    mastitis, abortion, peritonitis, wound infections
  22. What other species does Strep zoo affect?
    dogs, ferrets (pneumonia), rabbits, cows, swine, humans, alpacas
  23. A horse presents with severe mastitis. You look at the organism under the microscope and see Gram + rods. What is the organism and what are you going to use to treat it?
    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus, penicillin
  24. Causes gential/skin/wound infections, neonatal septicemia, toxic shock, and necrotizing fasciitis in dogs
    Streptococcus canis
  25. A dairy cow presents with chronic mastitis and the diagnostic test is CAMP positive
    Streptococcus agalactiae
  26. Streptococcus agalactiae causes
    chronic bovine mastitis
  27. After stress, a group of pigs presents with cervical lymphadenitis and jowel abscesses. Diagnosis?
    Streptococcus porcinus
  28. Streptococcus porcinus causes
    jowel abscesses and cervical lymphadenitis
  29. This is carried in healthy pigs and is a source of infection for piglets
    Streptococcus suis
  30. Streptococcus suis causes:
    lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, meningitis, endocarditis
  31. This organism causes lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, meningitis, endocarditis
    Streptococcus suis
  32. Treatment for Streptococcus suis
    extended spectrum beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin)
  33. Is there a vaccine for Streptococcus suis?
  34. Normal flora, effects piglets after weaning:_____ This causes:______
    • Streptococcus dysgalactiae equisimilis
    • arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis
  35. Streptococcus dysgalactiae equisimilis is common in _____. It causes:______ They get it from _____.
    • 1-3 wk old piglets
    • arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis
    • the sow
  36. Causes endocarditis and UTIs, can cause diarrhea in young animals. It is part of the normal intestinal flora
    Enterococcus spp.
  37. Enterococcus spp. is treated with
  38. Streptococcus pneumonia causes
    • Strep in humans
    • pneumonia in guinea pigs/rats
  39. This looks like clusters of grapes
  40. Commensals of upper respiratory tract and skin
  41. Virulence factors for Staphylococcus
    • Invasive enzymes
    • antiphagocytic capsules
    • superantigens
    • urease
    • protein A
  42. This functions as an Fc receptor for Staphylococcus
    Protein A
  43. Causes pustules and crust on skin
    Staphylococcus (aureus or pseudintermedius)
  44. This organism causes uroliths
  45. What kind of test do you use to diagnose a Staph infection?
    coagulase test
  46. Most common pyogenic agent of dogs
    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
  47. Most common SIG of horses
    Staphylococcus delphini
  48. Staphylococcus delphini is
    The most common SIG of horses
  49. Staph. aureus causes
    • abscesses, mastitis, osteomyelitis
    • Bumble-foot, botryomycosis
  50. Bumble foot is caused by
    S. aureus
  51. Greasy pig disease (exudative epidermitis)
    Staphylcoccus hyicus
  52. S. hyicus causes
    greasy pig disease
  53. This species of Staph is coagulase negative and only causes infections when associated with medical devices or immunocompromised patients
    S. epidermidis
  54. This antimicrobial selects for MRSA
  55. Treatment for Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
    cephalosporin, amoxi-clav
  56. Gram + coccobacillus
    Rhodococcus equi
  57. Causes rattles in foals
    Rhodococcus equi
  58. When are foals at risk for Rhodococcus equi?
    6-12 weeks (as maternal antibody declines)
  59. Infection is within macrophages/monocytes. 
    vapA plasmid arrests phagosome maturation
    Rhodococcus equi
  60. A foal presents with fever and stifle/hock effusion
    Rhodococcus equi
  61. This organism causes suppurative bronchopneumonia with abscesses in lungs
    Rhodococcus equi
  62. Causes caseopurulent granulomas and abscesses
    Rhodococcus equi
  63. Mostly causes disease in foals, but also causes opportunistic infections in other species via wound entry
    Rhodococcus equi
  64. Is there a vaccine for Rhodococcus equi?
    No, only immunization is with hyperimmune plasma
  65. Interferon gamma is the most important defense for this organism
    Rhodococcus equi
  66. Why is serological diagnosis of Rhodococcus equi infection unreliable?
    There are many strains, some avirulent and some virulent. Confirming presence of antibody does not confirm disease
  67. Why is Rhodococcus equi hard to diagnose?
    Abscesses are in the lungs
  68. Rhodococcus equi infection is suspected. What will you use to treat it and for how long?
    Clarithromycin + Rifampin for 3-8 weeks
  69. Causes caseous lymphadenitis in ovines
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  70. A horse has a deep abscess in the pectoral region. Microscopically, you see gram + rods that are shaped like chinese letters. Diagnosis?
    Ulcerative lymphangitis (dryland distemper, pigeon breast)
  71. This organism causes ulcerative lymphangitis in horses
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  72. Sphingomyelinase-specific phospholipase D is a major protective antigen for
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  73. Abscesses in lymph nodes with onion-like layers
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  74. Causes multiple chronic abscesses in goats/sheep
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  75. Enters though puncture wounds or biting flies and affects horses and cattle
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  76. Causes deep abscesses
    Exudate is odorless, thick, tan and blood tinged
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  77. What are you going to use to treat a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection?
  78. What is most important when trying to treat a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection?
    Lancing the abscess because treatment is ineffective in walled-off abscesses
  79. Why is a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection sometimes difficult to treat?
    Sometimes you cannot see the abscesses, so you do not know how big or small they are.
  80. Is there a vaccine for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis?
    Yes, in sheep/goats (toxoid & bacterin)
  81. Pili-mediated attachment to uroepithelium is a critical factor in pathogenesis for this organism
    Corynebacterium renale
  82. Inhabits lower genital tract of cattle and other ruminants
    Corynebacterium renale
  83. Causes chronic, ascending, pyonecrotic UTIs in ruminants
    Corynebacterium renale
  84. Causes pizzle rot in sheep
    Corynebacterium renale
  85. What are you going to use to treat a Corynebacterium renale infection?
  86. This is a small gram + rod, facultative anaerobe
    Truperella pyogenes
  87. The most common pyogenic agent in cattle
    Truperella pyogenes
  88. Truperella pyogenes is treated with
    penicillins, tetracylines, sulfas
  89. commensal of mucous membranes and usually complicated by pneumonia. Causes thick walled abscesses.
    Truperella pyogenes
  90. Truperella pyogenes causes this (3)
    pulmonary abscesses, chronic pneumonia, abortion
  91. Is there a vaccine for Truperella pyogenes?
  92. Anaerobic bacteria with small gram + rods
    Actinobaculum suis
  93. Causes cystitis and pyelonephritis in swine
    Actinobaculum suis
  94. Drug of choice for Actinobaculum suis
    Penicillin and ampicillin
  95. Actinobaculum suis is Gram +/-? aerobic/anaerobic?
    • Gram +
    • anaerobic
  96. Causes rhombencephalitis in ruminants
  97. This organism is intracellular
  98. This bacteria invades the intestinal epithelium and spreads from cell to cell via endothelial cells, monocytes, and phagocytes
    Listeria monocytogenes
  99. Listeria is treated with
    penicillin/ampicillin, tetracyclines, etc.
  100. This causes diamond patterns on the skin
  101. What does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae look like microscopically
    small gram + rods
  102. Most frequently effects swine, spread by ingestion or wound contamination
    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  103. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is spread by
    ingestion or wound contamination
  104. This causes acute septicemia, vegetative endocarditis and polyarthritis. It also has a urticarial form.
    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  105. This obligatory anaerobe causes cutaneous pyogranulomas, pyothorax, and osteomyelitis. It usually secondary to injury of the head, neck thorax and abdomen
    Actinomyces viscosus
  106. This organism is associated with foxtail awns
    Actinomyces hordeovulnaris
  107. Causes pyogranulomatus porcine mastitis
    Actinomyces suis
  108. Gram Negative, aerobic, in the order Actinomycetales
  109. Causes bovine farcy
  110. Cutaneous pyogranulomas, pyothorax in dogs
    mastitis in cattle
    pneumonia in Arabians
    Nocardia asteroides
  111. Treatment for Nocardia asteroides
    Trimethoprim/sulfas, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides - for 1-12 months
  112. Treatment for Actinomyces
    • trimethoprim/sulfas, tetracycline if early in infection
    • granulomatus lesions do not regress - debride
  113. associated with placentitis and abortion of foals
    Crossiella equi
  114. Paintbrush lesions
    Dermatophilus congolensis
  115. beaded gram +
    Dermatophilus congolensis
  116. Treatment for Dermatophilus congolensis
    penicillin, tetracycline
  117. large gram + spore forming aerobic rods
    Bacillus spp
  118. Only important pathogen for humans and animals in the Bacillus genus
    Bacillus anthracis
  119. Birds are resistant
    B. anthracis
  120. Broad "box car" gram + rods
    B. anthracis
  121. UV kills spores of B. anthracis in ____ hrs
  122. Three forms of anthrax
    • cutaneous
    • intestinal
    • pulmonary
  123. Causes blackleg in ruminants (primarily cattle)
    Clostridium chauvoei
  124. Causes malignant edema
    Clostridium septicum
  125. Wound infections and gas gangrene
    Clostridium perfringens
  126. Big head in rams
    Clostridium novyi type A
  127. Causes black disease (infectious necrotic hepatitis)
    Clostridium novyi type B
  128. Causes baciliary hemoglobinuria (redwater)
    Clostridium haemolyticum
  129. Treatment of histotoxic Clostridia
    • penicillin/ampicillin
    • tetracyclines
  130. Clostridium perfringens toxins produce this, also known as over eating disease
  131. Causes focal necrotic hepatitis, enteritis, and colitis (Tyzzer's disease)
    Clostridium piliforme
  132. non spore forming anaerobe that causes septic disease. Endotoxins cause localized hepatic coagulative necrosis
    Fusobacterium necrophorum
  133. Common gram negative anaerobes (3)
    • Bacteroides
    • Porphyromonas
    • Prevotella
  134. Organism in peridontal disease, releases toxins that destroy tissues
Card Set
Bacterial names, characteristics, diseases, antimicrobials