Intro to Anthropology

  1. What are the branches of Anthropology?
    • Cultural
    • Linguistic
    • Archaeology
    • Physical
  2. What is cultural anthropology?
    study of patterns of belief and behavior within cultures
  3. What are ethnographies?
    descriptive studies of human societies - traditionally non-Western cultures
  4. What is linguistic anthropology?
    study of human speech and language
  5. What is archaeology?
    study of earlier cultures through artifacts
  6. What are artifacts?
    objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins, usually tools made of stone or bone
  7. What is physical anthropology?
    study of humans, both holistic (study of everything about society), and comparative (modern and historic)
  8. What is biological anthropology?
    scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral characteristics of human beings and our closest relatives, the non-human primates, and their ancestors
  9. What (and when) did Charles Darwin write/publish?
    Origin of the Species, 1850
  10. What is primate paleontology?
    study of fossil primates, especially those that lived prior to the appearance of hominins
  11. What is paleoanthropology?
    inter-disciplinary approach to study of earlier hominins
  12. What is applied anthropology?
    practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques; outside the academic setting
  13. What is ossteology
    study of skeletal material
  14. What is DNA?
    double-stranded molecule that contains genetic code; main component of chromosomes
  15. What are nutritional anthropologists?
    they study the relationships between dietary components, cultural practices, physiology, aspects of health and disease
  16. What are molecular anthropologists?
    those that investigate evolutionary relationships between humans and non-human primates
  17. What is bioarchaeology?
    study of skeletons (from archaeological sites)
  18. What is paleopathology
    a branch of osteology that studies evidence of disease or injury
  19. What is forensic anthropology?
    applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters; work with coroners and others to identify and analyze human remains
  20. What is primatology?
    study of biology and behavior of non-human primates
  21. What are some non-human primates?
    lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes
  22. What is the scientific method?
    • a system of inquiry that¬†develops a hypothesis based upon observation
    • experimentation to collect data
    • testing of the data to support or reject hypothesis
    • further testing with new technology or data
  23. define relativistic
    viewing entities as they relate to something else; cultures have merit within their own historical and environmental contexts
  24. What are kinship networks?
    • biological (blood, family lines)
    • marriage ties
    • fictive kin = adoptive
  25. What is culture?
    the ways of doing and acting that are passed down through the generations, not by genetics, but via LEARNED BEHAVIOR
  26. We understand the evolutionary story from...?
    a scientific perspective
  27. What is the 4 Field Approach?
    • Linguistic
    • Cultural
    • Archaeology
    • Physical
  28. What are the branches of Physical Anthropology?
    • Paleoanthropology
    • Anthropometry¬†
    • Molecular genetics
    • Primatology
    • Osteology
    • Paleopathology
    • Forensic Anthropology
  29. Scientific Method is a process of understanding things through _______________, _________________, and _______________.
    • observation
    • generalization
    • verification
  30. What does empirical mean?
  31. The world is __________________ and _________________.
    • real
    • knowable

    • perceptions are based upon testing theories
    • tests with controlled observations
  32. What is a theory?
    • explanation framework
    • set of assumptions derived from observation
    • hypothesis that has been tested and accepted as more accurate than competing explanations
  33. What is deductive reasoning?
    hypothesis first, then tested (with new observations)
  34. What is inductive reasoning?
    gather information first, then try to make sense of it
  35. What is a hypothesis?
    tentative assumptions that accounts for relationships between empirical observations
  36. What is the scientific model?
    • a representation of reality devised for the purpose of testing a hypothesis
    • a conceptual framework for explaining things
  37. What is the cornerstone theory for ANTH101?
    Natural Selection
  38. Why does one need to understand variety and diversity within the human experience?
    Because it helps avoid ethnocentrism.

    ethnocentric = judging other societies or groups based upon one's own culture/society/experience.
  39. What is Molecular Genetics?
    • study of the human genotype
    • chromosomes
    • DNA comparison (sequences, differences/similarities, comparitive data for patterns, political reasons)
Card Set
Intro to Anthropology