Sociology first test nagmita

  1. Define Sociology
    The scientific study of how individuals influence groups, groups influence individuals, and groups influence other groups. Scientific study of society, focuses on groups.
  2. What are the 3 theories?
    Structural-functional, conflict, and symbolic interaction.
  3. Common sense
    what most people in a particular group and in a particular time and place believe to be true or the way it is.
  4. What are Peter berger's Three Motifs
    Debunking, unrespectability, and relativising.
  5. Debunking
    unmasking, looking beneath. Trying to anticipate the unforeseen, that which is not intended. Manifest and Latent functions
  6. Manifest function
    the intended, conscious and widely recognized consequences of particular social patterns.
  7. Manifest function Example
    writing laws to make gambling illegal is meant to stop gambling
  8. Latent functions
    the unconscious, unforeseen consequences of human behavior. Unintended
  9. Latent function example
    High school attendance policy decreases drop out rates
  10. Unrespectability
    Sociologists must study social phenomena to gain knowledge even if it is not popular or respected.
  11. Unresprctability example
    Tearoom trade, prostitution
  12. Relativising
    Viewing or understanding other cultures or groups from their point of view, values, beliefs, and not one's own.
  13. Relativising example
    Grandparents, parents to kids
  14. What are the 4 things defining a Theory/ Structural-Functional Theory?
    • 1. Society is an integrated whole/ a system.
    • 2. All elements of a society contribute to its well-being and survival.
    • 3. A society tends to remain in equilibrium to maintain stability.
    • 4. A society rests on the consensus(general agreement) of its members.
  15. What does Structural-Functional theory place emphasis on?
    emphasis on Stability and integration
  16. What are the 4 things defining conflict theory?
    • 1. A society experiences inconsistency and conflict at every moment; conflict is present everywhere
    • 2. A society experiences change at every moment; social change is present everywhere.
    • 3. Elements within a society contribute to its change.
    • 4. Society rests on the constraint of some of its members by others.
  17. What does conflict theory place emphasis on?
    emphasis on change and conflict
  18. Status Quo
    harmonizes institutions
  19. Who's the founder of sociology?
    Auguste Comte
  20. Who first used the word sociology and argues for a science of society?
    Auguste Comte
  21. He emphasized the nature of the human system as both structure and process
    Auguste Comte
  22. Social Statics
    Defined as structure in society by Auguste Comte
  23. Social Dynamics
    Defined as a process and change in society by Auguste Comte
  24. English Social Philosopher and Biologist.
    Herbert Spencer
  25. "survival of the fittest"
    Herbert Spencer
  26. He viewed society as an organism
    Herbert Spencer
  27. Developed theory of social evolution
    Herbert Spencer
  28. French Sociologist- 1st to teach sociology
    Emile Durkheim
  29. He dealt with the problem of social order, which is governed by symbols - ideas, values beliefs, and norms.
    Emile Durkheim
  30. Complex social relationships are also governed by negotiations between parties.
    Emile Durkheim
  31. He was first to test his theories about society with systematic data collection and statistical analysis.
    Emile Durkheim
  32. Used the scientific method
    Emile Durkheim
  33. Society is held together by power no so much by consensus(general agreement)
    Karl Marx
  34. Power came from property
    Karl Marx
  35. Placed emphasis on economic factors
    Karl Marx
  36. Existing social patterns and institutions rise through consolidation of groups of people with similar economic interests and experiences.
    Karl Marx
  37. He accepted revolutionary change. He thought social change would come about only by a class struggle; thus solving social problems.
    Karl Marx
  38. Interested in what united people into groups, the basic units of society.
    Max Weber
  39. Argued that economics, politics, and culture are the social forces that divide and stratify people into groups and link one group to another.
    Max Weber
  40. Developed major theories on stratification and bureaucracy.
    Max Weber
  41. Verstehen
    Understanding from the perspective of others. Weber
  42. Ideal Type
    Max Weber Generic pure model type that everything is based off of.ex. dogs
  43. Steps of scientific theory
    • 1. Select topic
    • 2. Define the problem
    • 3. Research
    • 4. Hypothesis
    • 5. Choose research method
    • 6. Collect data
    • 7. Interpret
    • 8. Conclusion
  44. Hawthorne effect
    Felling of researcher being present
  45. A set of shared symbols and their definitoins
  46. Guidelines for behaviours
  47. What are the norms that define the right and wrong behaviors, vital to welfare of the groups and supported by its dominant values or principles.
  48. What are Strong Negative Sanctions?
    Slow to change norms, remove someone from the group, capital punishment, disownment.
  49. What are Folkways?
    Norms that are accepted ways of engaging in behavior
  50. What are Fads and Fashion?
    Highly changing patterns of behavior, seasonal
  51. What are Laws?
    written rules enforced by special authority.
  52. What are Techniqueways?
    Skills or processes of a society
  53. What are Values?
    Beliefs that are socially shared ideas about what is good, right, desirable or worthwhile in life
  54. 5 important functions of language
    • 1. Overcomes the limitations of time and space
    • 2. permits to go beyond their senses
    • 3. permits think and reason
    • 4. accumulate and store knowledge
    • 5. transmit culture
  55. What are Sanctions, positive and negative?
    A system of rewards and punishments for following or breaking the norms. Positive are rewards, negative are punishments
  56. Formal Sanctions?
    norms or rules set by a formal group, such as universities
  57. Informal Sanctions?
    informal groups placing through daily activities
  58. Formal positive sanctions?
    Degree awards after receiving good grades for 4 years
  59. Informal positive sanction?
    you graduate and someone throws you a party
  60. Formal negative sanction?
    Violate law, go to jail as punishment.
  61. Informal negative sanction?
    getting grounded by your parents fro breaking the law
  62. Variable
    Concept divisible into 2 or more categories
  63. Dichotomous variable
    only 2 categories. Sex: male or female
  64. Multivalued variable
    more than 2 values
  65. Dependent variable
    prime interest, whose variations are to be explained in the research. Influenced by some other variable, or crucial variable.
  66. Independent Variable
    Influences the variables
  67. Cause, influencer, explains, time order X
    Independent var
  68. effect, influenced, explained, y
    dependent variable
  69. Spurious relationship
    A false relationship, correlation graphs aren't always one thing leading to the second one.
  70. Operational definition
    how a variable will me measured in the real world
Card Set
Sociology first test nagmita