Beef Quiz 3

  1. IVF
    • In vitro fertilization
    • take unfertilized oocyte and fertilize in a dish
    • Lower Success rate after freezing
    • Perform IVF when animal is 45-100 days bred
    • Perform on heifers prior to breeding
    • More expensive a bout $1,000 more
  2. ET
    • Embryo Transfer
    • Take fertilized embryo and transfer to another cow-can freeze
    • Cow must be open
    • Involves more shots
  3. Replacement Heifers (Article)
    • Investment
    • Decide what is important to you
    • Capitalize on proven genetics with direct selection (longevity)
    • Reproductively sound
    • Choosing sires-bulls that had (HD) 50k genetic enhanced EPDs (making them proven)
    • -Line breeding-using closely related bulls=more uniformity and less diversity (purebred)
    • Development plan with emphasis on nutrition
  4. Genemax
    • Commercial replacement heifer selection (Maternal)
    • Feeder steer ->feedlot performance (terminal)
    • Parent verification (If you have a calf and don't know where it came from)
  5. Interim EPDs
    • Temporary
    • Snapshot of parenting ability
    • Low accuracy
    • Until next National Cattlemen Evaluation (NCE)
  6. EPDs
    Bottom number
    • Information data used as genetic predictors
    • bottom number is accuracy the higher the number the more proven the animal is
    • Maternal=how the daughters will perform
    • CED=calving ease direct: difference in % of unassisted birth. Greater value means there is a lesser chance of a 1st calf heifer needing assistance
  7. Weaning Weight Interims
    • Animal must have registered parents
    • Weighed with at least one other anima
    • lSame sex
    • Proper contemporary group
    • Weigh days within 3 days
    • ET calves will be enrolled if recipient dam is registered
  8. How is an NCE EPD Different?
    • Calculated using all available performance data for a particular trait, accounting for relationships among animals.
    • Varying accuracies
    • animal's own record, progeny records, ancestral records
    • contributes to each animal's predicted genetic value.
    • Genomic results are included in the weekly NCE EPDs.
    • Nonparent animal must have a performance record genomic result meets data requirements
    • Parent animals have progeny with performance records incorporated into the evaluations even if the parent does not have an individual record for the trait of interest.
  9. Interims with Calf’s Own Performance
    • Best case Calf's own record relative to its contemporaries included.
    • Bull calf's adjusted 205-day weight relative to his contemporaries plays a role in calculating the interim weaning weight (WW) EPD. The calculations
    • Take into account the EPDs on the calf's sire and dam
    • I-EPD = (0.5 * EPD of sire) + (0.5 * EPD of dam) + (0.5 * Mendelian sampling effect)
  10. Mendelian Sampling effect
    • I-EPD = (0.5 * EPD of sire) + (0.5 * EPD of dam) + (0.5 * Mendelian sampling effect)
    • Mendelian sampling effect
    • Predicts how the calf's own genetic value deviates from the average of his parents
    • Calf's individual performance relative to his contemporaries plays a role
    • Accuracy value of 0.20 to 0.30, depending on the trait.
  11. Interims with Calf’s Parents
    • I-EPD = (0.5 * EPD of sire) + (0.5 * EPD of dam)
    • Only pedigree data à Pedigree index
    • Accuracy = 0.05No contemporariesParents have true NCE EPDs
  12. Why doesn’t my animal have EPDS?
    • One or more parents have an interim EPDUsually the dam
    • Not true NCE EPDs Biannual Evaluation
    • No proper calf weight reported
    • Contemporary group
    • At least two animals
    • Same sex
    • Managed similarly
    • Weighed in similar time frame
    • Once weight reported, dam and/or sire will be included and calf will then get an EPD
    • Individual weights on embryo transfer (ET) calves generally are not used in the interim EPD calculation
    • Raised by registered Angus recipient cows
    • Contemporary group of ET calves
    • ET calves out of commercial recipient dams receive only a pedigree-estimated interim EPD with a 0.05 accuracy
  14. HD 50K
    • High density – 50,000 DNA markers genotyped
    • Increased accuracy on young females and sires
    • Get
    • GE-EPDS
    • Parentage
    • Genomic % ranks
    • Sire match
  15. i50k
    • Low density panel
    • Imputation
    • Predict HD50K genotypes from a lower density genotype subset
    • Cheaper
  16. Three Values of GeneMax Focus
    • GMX Score
    • GMX marbling
    • GMX gain
  17. Genemax Score
    • GMX Score
    • Marbling + Gain
    • Weighted based on historical averages and industry economic trends
    • Ranked against Genemax database
  18. EPDs
    • information data used as genetic predictors
    • bottom number (.42, .38)=accuracy; more proven the animal the higher the accuracy
    • Maternal=how the daughters will perform
  19. CED
    • Calving Ease Direct
    • Difference in % of unassisted birth. Greater value means there is a lesser chance of 1st calf heifer needing assistance
    • Higher is better
    • Bull A=+10 Bull B=+7
    • Bull A will have 3% better chance of an unassisted birth
  20. RADG
    • Residual average daily gain
    • higher is better
    • animals gain more lbs/day in past weaning gain than predicted to gain. New EPD (5-7 years old)
  21. YH
    • Yearling Height
    • Ability of sire to pass on height, 
    • higher number is more height in inches
    • height at 1 year of age
  22. SC
    • Scrotal circumference
    • higher number in cm= larger scrotal circumference, relationship to fertility yearling bull should be 32-41cm
  23. DOC
    • Docility
    • higher number indicates more docility
  24. HP
    • Heifer pregnancy
    • fertility 
    • Female equivalent to scrotal circumference
    • higher is better
  25. CEM
    • Calving ease maternal 
    • ability of sires daughter to have calving ease
    • higher is better
  26. MKH
    # of herds that reported information on a sires daughters
  27. MKD
    same as MKH but is from daughters rather than herds
  28. $EN
    • Dollar energy
    • higher is better
    • more $ saved
    • more energy efficient->maintenance, lactation, gain
  29. $W
    • Wean Value
    • higher is better
    • increased value at weaning time
    • ww+postweaning gain potential
  30. $F
    Feedlot combines quality grade + yield grade gain in feedlot emphasis on gain
  31. Why do weeds grow
    • žLand is unhealthy ž
    • Control weeds
    • ›Sprayer, mower, animal
    • žChange conditions so weeds are out competed
    • ›Grazing technique
  32. What makes healthy land
    • žSoil
    • ›Out of sight out of mind
    • žCarbon
    • ›Nature return it
    • ›Agriculture and farming can take it away
    • žNitrogen
    • ›FixationžHealthy soil organic matter
  33. Looking into the land
    • žVolume of energy flow through the community
    • žEffectiveness of the water cyclež
    • -effective precipitation: soaks into the ground, no run off or leaching
    • Effectiveness of the mineral cycle
    • žBiodiversity
  34. Energy Flow
    • žStarts with plants capturing E with photosynthesis
    • ›Maximize –100% green cover as long as possible
    • –Broad leaf perennial grasses
    • žE available to grazing cattle
    • ›Lignin žE for soil microbes
    • ›30% of E captured by plants -> roots as sugars
  35. Mineral Cycle
    • žPlants take minerals from soilž
    • Animals eat plants
    • ›Use for energy, growth, lactation, etc.
    • žDefecate and urinate à return to soil
  36. Keys to a Healthy Ecosystem
    Cover, Cover, Biodiversity
  37. Benefits of Rotational Grazing
    • žReduce cost of machinery, fuel and facilitiesž
    • Reduce supplemental feeding and pasture waste
    • žImprove monthly distribution and pasture yield
    • žImprove animal waste distribution and use
    • žImprove pasture compositionž
    • Minimize daily fluctuations in intake and quality feedž
    • Allocate pasture to animals more efficiently, based on nutritional needs
  38. Rotational Grazing Concerns
    • žStocking Ratež
    • Cell/Paddock Design
    • žWater
  39. Principles of Rotational Grazing
    • žNutritional needs of livestock can be met efficiently
    • žForage yield, quality and pasture persistence can be optimized
    • žEconomic profit can be realized though efficiency and productivity
  40. Rotational Overgrazing
    • žPlant is grazed before it has recovered
    • ›Stay in a paddock too long
    • ›Come back too soonž
    • Takes a minimum of 8-10 paddocks
  41. Number of Paddocks
    • žMore paddocks = more movement
    • -žLess fluctuation in DMI
    • -žShort graze periods ›Tend to improve animal performance
    • žLess paddocks = longer graze periodsž
    • -More fluctuation in DMI
    • --›Animal performance suffers
  42. Application of principles
    • žProvide adequate recovery time for plantsž
    • Short graze periods
    • žUse highest practical stock density
    • žLargest herd consistent with good husbandry
    • žMatch stocking rate with annual and seasonal carrying capacity
    • žStocking density
    • ›Number of animals = number of mouths
    • ›More mouths more uniform grazing
  43. žDetermining stocking rate and acreage needed
    • ›Number of animals =
    • (Total acreage) x (average yield/acre)/
    • 0.04 x (average weight/animal) x (total days grazed)
  44. Determining number of paddocks
    (rest period/grazing period)+number of animal groups
  45. žSize of paddock
    ›Divide total pasture acreage needed by number of paddocks
  46. Monitor Improvementsž
    Animal Observations
    • ›Record health problems
    • ›Keep track of stocking rates
    • ›Developing “camp” areas
    • ›Cattle nutrition met
    • ›Production efficiency
  47. Monitor Improvements
    žPasture Observations
    • ›Keep track of rest and grazing periods. Do you see a response?
    • ›Keep track of plant growth stages
    • ›Pasture recovery
    • ›How to extend grazing season
    • ›Needed stockpiled forage
  48. Animal Unit Months
    • 1 AUM = the amount of forage required by an animal unit for one month
    • ex. ›1 AU grazes an area for 6 months–6 AUMs
  49. Metabolic Weight
  50. Choices of Ranching
    • ¨Living the ranching lifestyle      
    • VS.
    • ¨Running a ranching business
    • ¨You can’t run a sustainable business, with unsustainable effort
  51. Employees
    • Work smarter not harder
    • Money may not make people happy, but happy people make money
    • Job Description-Include what the employee should accomplish
    • Don’t hire people just to work. Hire them to produce results
    • Salary-Enough that they are focusing on work, not putting food on the table
  52. Explore New Ideas
    • ¨Knowing all sides of an issue can make it more comforting
    • 1.Situation Report – facts, figures, knowledge gaps
    • 2.Proposal – gross margin, cash flow
    • 3.Upside
    • 4.Downside
    • 5.Scoring – how big and likely are the pros and cons
    • 6.Alternatives
    • 7.Emotions
    • 8.Decisions
  53. Family Business
    • ¨Inheritance should have nothing to do with
    • ¨Inheritance and ownership are separate
    • -Mix it and you have problems
    • ¨Pay family members
    • -Sweat equity
    • -Often over-valued by the laborer
    • -Don’t “owe” anybody anything
    • ¨Family comes back only to work as a farm hand and get nothing
  54. Ranching Management
    • Run the land and the livestock as two different businesses
    • Don't give out jobs because they are family
    • Figure out succession in case something happens
  55. Ranching for profit
    • Output is greater than input
    • All land has value, nothing is free
    • Reduce overhead costs=reduce input costs
    • Taxes would be fixes costs
    • Overhead, gross margin, and turnover are all related
Card Set
Beef Quiz 3
ASCI 311 Beef Quiz 3