Ch 20 +

  1. 3 major layers of blood vessels and major role
    • Tunica interna: selective permeability
    • tunica media: regulate vessel diameter
    • tunica externa: merges w/other organs
  2. what's the circulatory rout
    heart-> arteries -> capillaries->veins ->heart
  3. ways to regulate blood flow and pressure?
    • 1) local control
    • 2) neural control
    • 3) hormonal control
  4. methods of local control for blood pressure and flow
    • 1)vasoactive chemicals
    • 2) autoregulation
    • 3) hyperemia
    • 4) angiogenesis
  5. how do vasoactive chemicals influence blood pressure/flow
    Local control: histamines, bradykinin, and prostalglandins help to dialate vessels under conditions of inflammation, trama, and exercise.
  6. how does autoregulation influence blood pressure/flow
    Local control:waste (CO2, H+,K, lactic acid and adenosine) increase vasodilation, which increases flow.
  7. how does hyperemia influence blood pressure/flow
    Local control: blood vessels over fill with blood after a peroid of ischemia (restricted flow).
  8. how does antiogenesis influence blood pressure/flow
    local control: vessels generate in uterine lining, athlete's when they build new muscle, and in arterial bypasses.
  9. methods for neural control of moderating blood pressure and flow
    local control: medula oblongata controls sympathetic control
  10. how does the neural control influence blood pressure and flow
    • Neural control: medulla oblongata
    • 1) baroreflexes: changes in movement
    • 2) chemoreflexes: changes in pH (increase CO2 increases vasoconstrictuion/BP)
    • 3) medulary ischemic rfx: low BP increases Heart rate and vasoconstriction.
  11. how does hormonal control influence blood pressure and flow
    • 1) angiotensin II
    • 2) aldosterone
    • 3)natiuretic peptides
    • 4) antidiuretic hormone
    • 5) epinephrine &norepinephrine
  12. which hormone, listen in hormonal control, increases bP through vasoconstriction and not water retention
    angiotensin II & epinephrines & norepinephrines
  13. which hormone, listen in hormonal control, increases bP through water retention not vasoconstriction?
    aldosterone, natiuretic peptide, & antidiuretic hormone.
  14. 3 general causes of edema, and some conditions that cause the physiological response.
    • 1) increased capillary filtration: kidney/congestive heart failure.
    • 2) reduced capillary reabsorption: hypoprotenemia (depends on oncotic pressure)
    • 3) obstructive lymphatic drainage: surgical removal of lymph nodes.
  15. Give the formula for hemodynamics.  first define
    • Homodynamics: principles of blood flow based on pressure & resistance:
    • F↘ΔP/R

    • F=flow
    • ΔP+ difference in pressure
    • R=resistance
  16. 2 mothods of capillary exchange: filtration and reabsorption
    • 1)blood hydrostatic: drives fluid out of capillaries
    • 2) colloid osmotic pressure (COP): draws fluid into capillaries.
  17. whata oncotic pressure
    difference between blood COP and tissue COP (colloid osmotic pressure).
  18. Causes of circulatory shock
    • Inadequate heart pumping:
    • 1) hypovolemic shock (loss of blood volume)
    • 2) obstructed venous return shock (tumor)
    • 3) venous pooling (standing long peroids)
  19. physiological response to circulatory shock.
    • 1)compensated shock: fainting
    • 2)decompensated shock: myocardial infarction/heart attack
  20. mean arterial pressure equation
    1/3 pulse pressure+diastolic pressure
  21. formula for pulse pressure
    systolic-diastolic=pulse pressure
  22. list 5 mechanisms of venous return of blood to heart.
    • 1) venous pressure gradient
    • 2) gravity
    • 3) skeletal muscle
    • 4) Thoracic pump
    • 5) expansion of atria
  23. formula she wants us to remember for blood pH increase
Card Set
Ch 20 +
Ch 20 +