CattleII1- Urethral Obstruction

  1. Why are castrated males at higher risk for urethral obstruction?
    urethral diameter in influenced by testosterone [this is why you should wait as long as it is feasible to castrate]
  2. Signs of urethral obstruction. (5)
    straining to urinate, hematuria, crystals on prepuce, dribbling, colic
  3. How do you diagnose urethral obstruction? (6)
    rectal palpation [urethral pulsation, enlarged bladder], abdominal ultrasound, radiography (small ruminants), Chem profile, UA, exploratory cystotomy
  4. What biochem profile derangements will you see with urethral obstruction? (5)
    azotemia, hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hyperkalemic, metabolic alkalosis
  5. __________ is a sequelae to urethral obstruction; it is diagnosed by...
    Bladder rupture; abdominocentesis and measure Cre of tapped fluid, US find free fluid in abdomen
  6. Causes of urethral obstruction. (7)
    urinary calculi, trauma/inflammation of urethra, tumors/polyps, hemorrhage, surgical mistakes, neurogenic bladder, prostatic disease
  7. Why are uroliths so common in small ruminants?
    dietary imbalances
  8. Factors influencing development of obstructive urolithiasis? (7)
    sex (male/castrated), high conc/low roughage diet, Ca:P imbalances, high Mg diets, alkaline urine, dehydration, UTI
  9. What factors predispose to struvite stones? (4)
    high conc/low roughage diet, low Ca:P ratio, high MG diet, alkaline urine
  10. What factors predispose to calcium carbonate stones? (2)
    ingestion of plants with high Ca2+ conc, ingestion of legumes
  11. What factors predispose to silicate stones? (3)
    ingestion of plants high in silicates, plants grown in sandy soils, high Ca:P ratio
  12. Where do stones usually lodge in cattle?
    distal end of the sigmoid flexure (urethra narrows here)
  13. Describe general aspects medical therapy for urolithiasis.(3)
    stabilize patient (correct metabolic derangements), dissolve calculi, prevent formation of additional stones
  14. How do you correct the metabolic derangements associated with urolithiasis? (3)
    IV saline fluids, diuresis [be careful if the animal is completed obstructed], decrease urine pH
  15. What are the options for surgical management of urethral obstruction? (3)
    perineal/vental urethrostomy, tube cystostomy, bladder marsupialization
  16. Disadvantages to urethrostomy. (3)
    short term fix (stricture w/i 6-12 months), urine scalding, not for breeding bulls
  17. What are advantages and disadvantages of tube cystostomy?
    • advantage: functional urethra/penis, good for breeding males, allows for bladder/urethra healing (back to normal)
    • disadvantage: abdominal surgery, costly, longer recovery, cystitis
  18. How should you manage urethral obstruction in a breeding animals?
    tube cystostomy
  19. Disadvantage of bladder marsupialization? (5)
    costly, abdominal surgery, susceptible to cystitis, not viable for breeding animals, last resort
Card Set
CattleII1- Urethral Obstruction
vetmed cattleII1