bio 103 exam

  1. According to Grobstein, seeking to find the least common denominator among living things on Eart is a _____ approach to defining life
  2. According to Grobstein, life shoul be defined in the context of the _____ and it's  ______
    Universe and it's evolution
  3. What are the 3 types of macromolecules?
    • polypeptides
    • polynucleotides
    • polysaccarides
  4. what is an example of a polypeptide?
  5. What is an example of polynucleotides?
    nucleic acids
  6. what is an example of a polysaccarides?
  7. what is an example of a biological hierarchy with 4 levels?
    cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
  8. The second law of thermodynamics says that _____ should always increase in the universe
    entropy or disorder
  9. Life is always associated with?
  10. Biological replication occurs at what three levels?
    • molecular
    • cellular
    • organismal
  11. Protein being broken down into amino acids is an example of which of the two aspects of metabolism?
  12. Two assertions about the cause of the recent revolution in biology are criticized because they are both not?
  13. According to Grobstein, the conscious search for statements of ever-broader applicability is doing what to wider areas of biology?
  14. An amoeba splits into two smaller amoebas. This is an example of?
    Asexual reproduction
  15. cells are?
    the building block of living organisms
  16. What did Sullivan write?
    The Limitations of Science
  17. What are the 3 needs and desires?
    • 1. Practical advantages
    • 2. Satisfying disinterested curiosity
    • 3. Provides objects of great aesthetic charm for the contemplative imagination
  18. What is Restriction endonuclease?
    could be used to cut DNA in a precise matter
  19. What does Restriction endonuclease lead to?
    Recombinant DNA
  20. Recombinant DNA is the foundation of?
  21. The Babylonians/ Egyptians history in science was? (3 things)
    • 1. rudimentary geometry & astronomy = suited to the practical needs of an agricultural population
    • 2. Disinterested Curiosity- Babylonian priests kept records of the rising and setting of heavenly bodies (=astrology).
    • 3. Primarily Practical: little disinterested curiosity
  22. The greeks history in science was? (2 things)
    • 1. recognize the scientific spirit; wanted to know for the sake of knowing- necessary condition for science to come into the world
    • 2. Land surveying formulas of Egyptians, in hands of Greeks= deductive geometry and mathematical reasoning was created
  23. What were the Romans history in science? (2 things)
    • 1. spirit of disinterested curiosity died-essentially practical people
    • 2. Attitude= what is the use of it?
  24. What were the medievalists history in science? (3 things)
    • 1. (romans to renaissance): produce nothing in science
    • 2. Outlook on life made science unnecessary
    • 3. Derived information from two sources: Reason- Aristotle Revelation (scriptures)
  25. What was the Renaissance history in science?(4 things)
    • 1. (14th-16th centuries): 1st clear expression of the modern scientific outlook (LL., renascentia, new birth):
    • 2. Leonardo Da Vinvi (1452-1519) Never published
    • 3. Galileo (1564-1642) Not perfect scientific man; did not fully realize the necessity of confirming mathematical deductions by experiment (- "used experiments only to prove to those less wise than he what he already knew to be true").
    • 4. Newton (1642-1727) Scientific outlook reached full consciousness
  26. What is the basis of science?
    Observation and experimentation= mathematical deduction, checked by further experiment

    (=independent and self-enclosed system, borrowing nothing from metaphysics or theology = dominating outlook of the scientific world.)
  27. What is cells?
    units of organization and function of living organisms
  28. What is the cell theory?
    all organisms are composed of cell and cell products (1830s)
  29. WHat did Lenenhooke do?
    Discovered bacteria and protozoans using a single lensed microscope
  30. What did Robert Hooke do?
    • Introduced the words cells
    • Was looking at thin sections of cork and reminded him of cells in monastery
  31. Who were known as the 2 classical microspicits?
    Lenenhooke and Robert Hooke
  32. Who gained credit for the cell theory?
    Schum and schullanlen
  33. What is the saying that Brown came up with in 1841?
    • Ommus cellular e cellular"
    • life only comes from preexisting life in cellular form"
  34. What dud Pasteur gave evidence in favor of?
  35. What is biogenesis?
    Life only arises from preexisting life in cellular form
  36. What was pasteur against?
    spontaneous genesis
  37. What is the concept that life did not originate from Earth but life was sent here?
    Directed panspermia
  38. Who was Francis Crick? (2 things)
    • Discoverer of DNA (double helix)
    • Author of the book Life itself
  39. Are cell size the same or different in plants?
  40. Are cell sizes the same or different in organisms?
  41. What is the general range of cell size?
    1-100 micrometer
  42. What is the resolution of the human eye?
    100 micrometer
  43. What are the two types of cells?
    • Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotic
  44. What is a prokaryotic cell?
    Cell with no true nucleus
  45. What is a eukaryotic cell?
    A cell with a true nucleus
  46. What is the cell membrane?
    The outermost part of the cell
  47. What are the 5 different parts of the Eukaryotic cell?
    • . Cell (plasma) membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Mitochondria
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Nucleus
  48. What are the three things the plasma membrane made up of?
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
  49. What is the function of the plasma membrane?
    • control what moves into and out of the cell
    • "gate keeper"
  50. What are the two things in the cytoplasm?
    • . Organelles
    • Plastids
  51. What are organelles?
    • subcellular components for specified functions
    • many are membrane
  52. Plastids are found in what type of cell?
    plant cells
  53. What is chloroplasts?
    deals with photosynthesis
  54. What are two types of plastids?
    • Chloroplasts
    • lsucoplasts
  55. What is the mitochondria?
    the powerhouse of the cell
  56. The mitochondria found in what cells?
    plant and animal cells
  57. What is in the Mitochondria?
  58. What is ATP?
    A high energy molecule
  59. Where does mitochondria and chloroplast come from?
    from preexisting bacteria
  60. What shape is mitochondria?
    rods, size of bacteria
  61. What is the golgi apparatus?
    • A network of the cytoplasm of the cell
    • "molecular traffic cop"
    • certain proteins are directed to different places
  62. Where is the golgi apparatus found?
    chloroplasts and mitochondria
  63. What are the three types of cytoskeleton?
    • microtubules
    • microfilaments (actins)
    • Intermediate Filaments
  64. What is the diameter of the microtubules?
    25 mm
  65. What is the diameter of microfilaments (actins)?
    8 mm
  66. what is the diameter of the intermediate filaments?
    10 mm
  67. what is fluorescence microscopy?
    use chemical flouresence to attach to certain types of cells, or antibody and they antibody will be specific for a certain part of the cell
  68. What is the cytoskeleton responsible for?
    Cell shape and cell movement
  69. What is cytoplasmic matrix?
    • background of cytoplasm
    • everything is enveloped here
    • sometimes called cytosol
  70. what level can you see the nuclear membrane?
    Light microscope
  71. what level can you see the nuclear envelope?
    Electric microscope
  72. What is embedded in the nucleoplasm?
  73. What are chromatids?
    Chromatids are made up of DNA and hector proteins
  74. What is the nucleus responsible for?
    Cell activity and heredity
  75. What is inclusions?
    matters in bulk
  76. What are examples of inclusions?
    cell sap in cell, sap molecules, starch grains
  77. What is nucleoid?
    a region with the genetic material
  78. What are the 3 exceptions to the cell theory?
    • Prokaryotic cells do not contain a true nucleus
    • Skeletal muscle fiber does not consist of cells but multi-nucleated single cells of cytoplasm
    • Certain fungi- coenontic- entire organism is multinuclear
  79. What is used to determine functions of organelles?
  80. What is fixation?
    killing the cell without altering the anatomy of the cell
  81. What are the two different types of electron microscopes?
    • Transmission electron microscope
    • Scanning electron microscope
  82. Which Electron microscope has the image of the specimen that is flat and no depth of field?
    Transmission Microscope
  83. Which electron microscope has a great depth of field advantage?
    Scanning electron microscope
  84. Cell surface is?
    surface area to volume ratio
  85. ribosomes are involved in?
    making protein
  86. golgi has two different faces which are?
    • Cis Face¬†
    • Trans face
Card Set
bio 103 exam
1st exam bio 103