According to Grobstein, seeking to find the least common denominator among living things on Eart is a _____ approach to defining life
According to Grobstein, life shoul be defined in the context of the _____ and it's ______
Universe and it's evolution
What are the 3 types of macromolecules?
what is an example of a polypeptide?
What is an example of polynucleotides?
what is an example of a polysaccarides?
what is an example of a biological hierarchy with 4 levels?
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
The second law of thermodynamics says that _____ should always increase in the universe
entropy or disorder
Life is always associated with?
Biological replication occurs at what three levels?
Protein being broken down into amino acids is an example of which of the two aspects of metabolism?
Two assertions about the cause of the recent revolution in biology are criticized because they are both not?
According to Grobstein, the conscious search for statements of ever-broader applicability is doing what to wider areas of biology?
An amoeba splits into two smaller amoebas. This is an example of?
the building block of living organisms
What did Sullivan write?
The Limitations of Science
What are the 3 needs and desires?
- 1. Practical advantages
- 2. Satisfying disinterested curiosity
- 3. Provides objects of great aesthetic charm for the contemplative imagination
What is Restriction endonuclease?
could be used to cut DNA in a precise matter
What does Restriction endonuclease lead to?
Recombinant DNA is the foundation of?
The Babylonians/ Egyptians history in science was? (3 things)
- 1. rudimentary geometry & astronomy = suited to the practical needs of an agricultural population
- 2. Disinterested Curiosity- Babylonian priests kept records of the rising and setting of heavenly bodies (=astrology).
- 3. Primarily Practical: little disinterested curiosity
The greeks history in science was? (2 things)
- 1. recognize the scientific spirit; wanted to know for the sake of knowing- necessary condition for science to come into the world
- 2. Land surveying formulas of Egyptians, in hands of Greeks= deductive geometry and mathematical reasoning was created
What were the Romans history in science? (2 things)
- 1. spirit of disinterested curiosity died-essentially practical people
- 2. Attitude= what is the use of it?
What were the medievalists history in science? (3 things)
- 1. (romans to renaissance): produce nothing in science
- 2. Outlook on life made science unnecessary
- 3. Derived information from two sources: Reason- Aristotle Revelation (scriptures)
What was the Renaissance history in science?(4 things)
- 1. (14th-16th centuries): 1st clear expression of the modern scientific outlook (LL., renascentia, new birth):
- 2. Leonardo Da Vinvi (1452-1519) Never published
- 3. Galileo (1564-1642) Not perfect scientific man; did not fully realize the necessity of confirming mathematical deductions by experiment (- "used experiments only to prove to those less wise than he what he already knew to be true").
- 4. Newton (1642-1727) Scientific outlook reached full consciousness
What is the basis of science?
Observation and experimentation= mathematical deduction, checked by further experiment
(=independent and self-enclosed system, borrowing nothing from metaphysics or theology = dominating outlook of the scientific world.)
What is cells?
units of organization and function of living organisms
What is the cell theory?
all organisms are composed of cell and cell products (1830s)
WHat did Lenenhooke do?
Discovered bacteria and protozoans using a single lensed microscope
What did Robert Hooke do?
- Introduced the words cells
- Was looking at thin sections of cork and reminded him of cells in monastery
Who were known as the 2 classical microspicits?
Lenenhooke and Robert Hooke
Who gained credit for the cell theory?
Schum and schullanlen
What is the saying that Brown came up with in 1841?
- Ommus cellular e cellular"
- life only comes from preexisting life in cellular form"
What dud Pasteur gave evidence in favor of?
What is biogenesis?
Life only arises from preexisting life in cellular form
What was pasteur against?
What is the concept that life did not originate from Earth but life was sent here?
Who was Francis Crick? (2 things)
- Discoverer of DNA (double helix)
- Author of the book Life itself
Are cell size the same or different in plants?
Are cell sizes the same or different in organisms?
What is the general range of cell size?
What is the resolution of the human eye?
What are the two types of cells?
What is a prokaryotic cell?
Cell with no true nucleus
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A cell with a true nucleus
What is the cell membrane?
The outermost part of the cell
What are the 5 different parts of the Eukaryotic cell?
- . Cell (plasma) membrane
What are the three things the plasma membrane made up of?
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
- control what moves into and out of the cell
- "gate keeper"
What are the two things in the cytoplasm?
What are organelles?
- subcellular components for specified functions
- many are membrane
Plastids are found in what type of cell?
What is chloroplasts?
deals with photosynthesis
What are two types of plastids?
What is the mitochondria?
the powerhouse of the cell
The mitochondria found in what cells?
plant and animal cells
What is in the Mitochondria?
What is ATP?
A high energy molecule
Where does mitochondria and chloroplast come from?
from preexisting bacteria
What shape is mitochondria?
rods, size of bacteria
What is the golgi apparatus?
- A network of the cytoplasm of the cell
- "molecular traffic cop"
- certain proteins are directed to different places
Where is the golgi apparatus found?
chloroplasts and mitochondria
What are the three types of cytoskeleton?
- microfilaments (actins)
- Intermediate Filaments
What is the diameter of the microtubules?
What is the diameter of microfilaments (actins)?
what is the diameter of the intermediate filaments?
what is fluorescence microscopy?
use chemical flouresence to attach to certain types of cells, or antibody and they antibody will be specific for a certain part of the cell
What is the cytoskeleton responsible for?
Cell shape and cell movement
What is cytoplasmic matrix?
- background of cytoplasm
- everything is enveloped here
- sometimes called cytosol
what level can you see the nuclear membrane?
what level can you see the nuclear envelope?
What is embedded in the nucleoplasm?
What are chromatids?
Chromatids are made up of DNA and hector proteins
What is the nucleus responsible for?
Cell activity and heredity
What is inclusions?
matters in bulk
What are examples of inclusions?
cell sap in cell, sap molecules, starch grains
What is nucleoid?
a region with the genetic material
What are the 3 exceptions to the cell theory?
- Prokaryotic cells do not contain a true nucleus
- Skeletal muscle fiber does not consist of cells but multi-nucleated single cells of cytoplasm
- Certain fungi- coenontic- entire organism is multinuclear
What is used to determine functions of organelles?
What is fixation?
killing the cell without altering the anatomy of the cell
What are the two different types of electron microscopes?
- Transmission electron microscope
- Scanning electron microscope
Which Electron microscope has the image of the specimen that is flat and no depth of field?
Which electron microscope has a great depth of field advantage?
Scanning electron microscope
Cell surface is?
surface area to volume ratio
ribosomes are involved in?
golgi has two different faces which are?