1. Commitment in relativism (Perry)
    • 1: Initial commitment
    • 2: several commitments-balancing them
    • 3: commitments evolve, they maybe contradictory
  2. Theories of Women Development
    • Nancy Chodrow: 1st to speak out against masculine bias in 1970s
    • Jean Baker Miller: "Care taking" role is central concept in differentiating development of women from men
    • Judith Jordan: Presented development theory of women in 1991
  3. Ecological Theory
    • Brofenbrenner
    • Micro
    • Meso
    • Exo
    • Macro
  4. Lawrence Kohlberg
    Moral development-thinking and reasoning
  5. Preconventional (Kohlberg)
    • Level 1
    • Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation exists
    • Stage 2: An instrumental and hedonistic orientation prevails (obtaining rewards)
  6. Conventional (Kohlberg)
    • Level 2
    • Stage 3: Interpersonal acceptance prevails; maintaining good relations, approval from others
    • Stage 4: Law and order orientation exists; conformity to legitimate authorities
  7. Postconventional (Kohlberg)
    • Level 3
    • Stage 5: Social contracts and utilitarian orientation; most values and rules are relevant
    • Stage 6: Self-chosen principled orientation; universal ethical principles apply
  8. Daniel Leninson's 3 sets of developmental tasks
    • Build modify and enhance life structure
    • form and modify single components of life structure such as; life dream, occupation, love, family relationships and forming mutual relationships
    • tasks to become more individuated
  9. Daniel Levinson
    • Wrote: The season's of a man's life
    • identified 3 major transitions/times 
    • Early Adult transition: 17-22
    • Midlife transition: 40-45 midlife crisis
    • Late Adult Transition: 45-60
  10. Propinquity
    • Implies nearness or proximity
    • ex: when selecting a partner it will likely be someone who lives nearby or works with you
  11. Emotional Intelligence
    • learned development process beginning in infancy-through adulthood
    • emotionally intelligent person is self-motivated, emphatic, grasp social signals and nonverbal messages
  12. Relativism is Discovered (Perry)
    • 1: There may not be right or wrong answers; uncertainty maybe ok
    • 2: All knowledge may be relative
    • 3: in an uncertain world, I'll have to make decisions
  13. Dualism (perry)
    • 1: Authorities know
    • 2: there are true authorities and wrong
    • 3: good authorities may know but may not know everything
  14. William Perry
    Developed scheme for intellectual development and ethical development
  15. Self-efficacy
    • Belief we can perform some behavior or task
    • Facilitated through 4 mwchanisms:
    • -modeling others behaviors
    • -vicarious experience: watching others
    • -verbal persuasion: being told one can do a task
    • -Physiological states: recognizing emotional arousal or anxiety involved in behavior
  16. Uri Brofenbrenner
    • Important to look at all levels and systems impacting a person
    • Chronosystem: changes over time
    • Macrosystem: social and cultural values
    • Exosystem: Indirect environment
    • Mesosystem: connections
    • Micro: immediate environment
  17. Conditioning principles: stimulus generalization
    • Once response been conditioned, stimuli are similar to the conditioned stimulus are likely elicit conditioned response.
    • Shape behavior through successive approximations
  18. Conditioning Principles: Spontaneous recovery
    after rest period, conditioned response reappears when the conditioned stimulus is again presented
  19. Classic and operant conditioning principles
    • Classic: food-salvation; bell-salvation
    • operant: pick up toys-get hug
  20. Conditioning Principles
    • Fixed Ratio: reinforce after a fixed # of responses
    • Variable ratio: reinforce, on the average, after every nth repsonse
    • Fixed interval: reinforce after a fixed period of time
    • Variable interval: reinforce after every nth minute
    • Reinforcement schedule: continuous or variablebehaviors established through variable or intermittent reinforcements tougher to extinguish
  21. Acetylcholine
    • important for:
    • memory
    • optimal cognitive functioning
    • emotional balance and control
  22. Dopamine
    • Important for: 
    • emotional wellness
    • motivation
    • pleasurable feelings
  23. Serotonin
    • Affects feelings, behaving, thinking
    • critical for emotional and cognitive processes
    • vital to sleep and anxiety control
  24. GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)
    Helps reduce anxiety and promotes relaxation and sleep
  25. Internal control
    belief that rewards and satisfaction are contingent on their own actions and that people can shape their own fate
  26. external control
    belief events occur independently of their own actions and that future is determined more by chance than luck
  27. Stanley Strong
    • Interpersonal influence process
    • appearing expert to your client may help to "influence" them to join counseling process
  28. Clients from minority groups may prefer engaging in what approach
    action oriented
  29. courses need to be competent in cross-cultural counseling are:
    • consciousness-raising
    • affective component
    • knowledge component
    • skills component
  30. Systematic Eclecticism
    training programs should realize we are feeling, thinking, behaving, social, cultural and political beings
  31. Highest infant mortality rate, highest drop out rate in HS at 70% and highest suicide rate is what culture
    Native Americans
  32. Cultural encapsulation
    • Gilbert Wrenn
    • the substitution model stereotypes of the real world
    • disregarding culture variations-believing in some universal notion of truth (everyone is same)
    • use of technique-oriented defintion of counseling process
  33. Racio-ethnic
    • # of different cultural factors and forces impact an individual to make them unique
    • Some factors/forces have broader impact than others
  34. Emic view of world
    Belief that you need to understand and help groups form their perspectives-their culture-specific focus
  35. Resistance & Immersion
    Individual accepts/endorses the minority views and rejects the majority resulting in self-appreciation
  36. Assimilation
    Extent to which one has changed so much that they are absorbed into dominant group losing own original values and behaviors
  37. Acculturation
    Extent to which one from a racial/ethnic minority adopts and incorporates the values/beliefs/customs of dominant culture
  38. Cultural norms
    • these norms represent a groups basic interpretation of life
    • norms provide values for living and lifestyle
  39. Cultural pluralism
    • refers to broad categories of individuals who may have special concerns/needs or seek respect, representation and development in society
    • categories include: racial, ethnic and religious classifications, women, elderly, single parent homes, divorced, handicapped, gays, poor, children
  40. Dissonance
    current self-concept is challenged; there is a conflict between appreciating and depreciating self
  41. conformity
    self depreciation attitude and identification with majority
  42. Etic view of world
    • global view of humanity
    • we are more similar than different
    • focus is on similarities instead of differences
  43. Ethocentrism
    • belief that ones own group is center of everything and it sets the standard
    • may cause inter-generational conflict
  44. Kubler-Ross
    • Believed dying person experiences the following behaviors:
    • Denial & isolation: "Its not happening"
    • Anger: "Why me"
    • Bargaining: "If i dont die, I will..."
    • Depression: silence, suffering, grief
    • Acceptance: sense of peace
  45. Leon Festinger
    • Cognitive Dissonance
    • source of motivation-we try to reduce dissonance
  46. IDEA
    • Individuals with disabilities education act of 2004
    • free education
    • least restrictive environment
    • all have IEPs
  47. Attribution theory
    Explanations (casual attributions) we offer for our outcomes influence our future expectations of success and our future motivation to succeed
  48. Introspection
    indivdual moves from the intensity of feelings in the R&I stage and becomes concerned with basis of self-appreciating
  49. Integrative awareness
    individual can own and appreciate minority and dominant aspects of both cultures
  50. Undeseriable clients: QUOID
    • quiet
    • ugly
    • old
    • indigent
    • dissimilar culturally
  51. Desirable Clients: YAVIS
    • Young
    • attractive
    • verbal
    • intelligent
    • successful
  52. Psychological dysfunction
    • Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
    • dysfunction is unexpected in its cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment functioning
  53. Psychopathology
    scientific study of psychological D/O
  54. Prevalence
    How many (what %) of the population has the D/O
  55. Incidence
    • How many new cases occur within a given time frame; such as a year
    • anticipated course of D/O
  56. Etiology
    • What causes a D/O
    • ex: why does it begin?
    • biological, physiological and social dimensions are involved
  57. Equifinality
    • there may be multiple paths to a given outcome
    • ex: depression may be caused by physical injury, loss loved one, or substance abuse
  58. Comorbidity
    means an individual has 2 or more D/O at same time
  59. Adaptive functioning
    • Occurs when defense mechanisms used to cope with stressors
    • Mechanisms leading to optimal adaptations include anticipation, humor and sublimation
    • at other extreme, failure to regulate leads to break with reality
  60. structuring
    defining the nature, limits and goals of counseling process
  61. surviving brain
    stem and responds to danger, controls automatic functions (Flight-fight)
  62. feeling brain
    • Limbic system
    • emotion center
    • mediating feelings and thoughts
    • storing some memory
  63. Thinking brain
    • Cortex
    • executive functions
    • mean-making
    • self-awareness
  64. Neuroplasticity
    brains ability to produce new neurons and reorganize itself
  65. Virgina Axeline
    • Wrote: Play therapy and Dibs: search of self
    • believes leader or therapist attends, recognizes feelings, helps child express them and implement new behaviors
  66. Genogram
    Pictorial representation of the relationship within the family
  67. Identified Patient (IP)
    • Family member with presenting symptoms
    • the person who initially seeks treatment or for whom treatment is sought
  68. Alignments
    Clusters of alliances between family members within overall family group; affiliations and splits from one another, temporary or permanent, occur in pursuit of homeostasis
  69. Boundary
    An abstract delineation between parts of a system or between systems, typically defined by implicit or explicit rules regarding who may participate in what manner
  70. Closed system
    • Self-contained system with impermeable boundaries, operating without interactions outside the system
    • resistant to change and prone to increasing disorder
  71. Coalitions
    covert alliances of affiliations, temporary or long term, between family members against other family members
  72. Cybernetics
    study with methods of feedback control within a system, especially the flow of information through feedback loops
  73. Enmeshment
    • boundaries are blurred
    • members over-concerned or over-involved
    • limiting autonomy
  74. Family sculpting
    • physical arrangement of members of a family in space, with placement of each person determined by the member acting as "director" 
    • represents persons symbolic view of family relationships
  75. Feminist Family Therapy
    collaborative, egalitarian, nonsexist intervention, applicable to both men and women, addressing family gender roles, patriarchal attitudes, social and economic inequalities in male-female relationships
  76. Homeostasis
    Dynamic state of balance or equilibrium in a system, or a tendency toward achieving and maintaining such a state in an effort to ensure a stable environment
  77. Joining
    therapeutic tactic of entering a family system by engaging its separate members and subsystems, gaining access in order to explore and ultimately help modify dysfunctional aspect of that system
  78. Multiple family therapy
    a form of therapy in which members of several families meet together as a group to work on individual and family problems
  79. nuclear family
    family composed of a husband, wife, their offspring, living together as family unit
  80. open system
    a system with more or less permeable boundaries that permits interaction between the systems component parts or subsystems and outside influences
  81. Permeability
    the ease or flexibility with which members can cross subsystem boundaries with in the family
  82. strategic apporach
    • therapeutic approach
    • therapist develops specific plan/strategy and designs interventions aimed at solving the presenting problem
  83. structural model
    • therapeutic approach
    • directed at changing or realigning family organization/structure in order to alter dysfunctional transactions and clarify subsystem boundaries
  84. system
    a set of interacting units or component parts that together make up a whole arrangements or organization
  85. triangulation
    process in which each parent demands a child ally with her/him against other parent during parental conflict
  86. transactional analysis
    • Eric Berne & Thomas Harris
    • personality has 3 ego states: Parent, Adult & Child
    • life script: develops in childhood and influences persons behavior
    • goals: teach language and ideas of TA in order to recognize ego state functioning and analyze ones transactions
    • techniques: teaching concepts, helping diagnose, interpretation and use of contracts and confrontation
  87. countertransference
    • consists of projections of the therapist into the patient due to unresolved conflicts
    • unconscious emotional responses to a client that interfere with objectivity
  88. confluence
    process of blurring awareness of the boundary between self and environment
  89. introjection
    tendency to uncritically accept others beliefs without assimilating or internalizing them
  90. Retroflection
    Process of turning back to ourselves what we would like to do to someone else
  91. Deflection
    Process of distraction, which makes it difficult to maintain sustained contact
  92. 4 key elements in building helping relationship
    • Human relations core
    • social influence core
    • skills core
    • theory core
  93. social influence core
    competence, power & intimacy, expertness, attractiveness and trustworthiness were identified by Stanley Strong in his social influence model
  94. Human Relations Core
    • Empathy
    • Respect
    • genuineness 
    • Identified by Carl Rogers
  95. Skills Core
    • Allen Ivey identified microskills:
    • communication skills units such as attending, inquiry and reflection
  96. Theory Core
    • Helps counselor understand self and interpersonal relationships and skills
    • helps to understand problems of clients and help choose interventions likely to be effective
  97. Transference
    • Projects onto therapist
    • must be worked through
    • clients unconscious shifting to the therapist feelings and fantasies both positive and negative that are displacements from reactions to significant others from clients past
  98. Phallic Stage: Oedipal complexes
    • Son attraction to mother
    • (conflictual times for the child)
  99. Phallic Stage: Electra Complex
    • Daughter attraction to father
    • (conflictual time for child)
  100. Erogenous zones
    • areas of bodily excitation
    • such as mouth, anus and genitals
  101. Other psychoanalytic concepts
    • Castration anxiety penis envy
    • reality principle: idea ego does realistic and logical thinking and formulate plans of action for satisfying needs
    • Pleasure principle: idea the id is driven to satisfy instinctual needs by reducing tension, avoiding pain and gaining pleasure
  102. Neo-Freudians
    moved away from emphasis on id and placed in ego
    • includes both psychodynamic & sociodynamic forces
    • Otto Rink
    • Wilheim Reich
    • Theodore Reik
    • Karen Horney: security major motivation. anxious if unachieved. irrational ways=neurotic needs
    • Erich Fromm: one must join with others to develop self-fulfillment otherwise lonely, unproductive society offers experience mutual love and respect
    • Harry Stack Sullivan: social systems (interpersonal approach) behavior understood social interactions not as mechanist and linear
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